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Intrahospital infections

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Intrahospital infections
Page 2
Directions of measures of fight

HH-go's end – the beginning of the XXI centuries were marked by a wide circulation of so-called blood infections that became a subject of special attention not only professional physicians, but also heads of different government and legislative structures.

Distribution of hospital infections, including HIV, viral hepatitis becomes more and more burning issue of practical health care also.

Hepatitis B defines practically all lethality of a viral hepatitis in general. About 2 million people perish every year from this infection and its effects. In information materials of the company Smith Klein to GV Scourges by 100 times more infectious in comparison with AIDS.

In official WHO materials hepatitis B is carried to number of occupational diseases of health workers.
Infection of the health worker most often happens at contact of skin and mucous to biological liquids and the patient's tissues (blood, serum, sperm, cerebrospinal fluid, marrow, etc.) and traumatizations during performance of medical manipulations (a cut, a prick, injury of skin by small fragments of a bone, etc.) the staff of hematology, intensive, traumatologic, stomatologic, delivery, surgical, pathoanatomical units and departments of a hemodialysis, rooms for medical procedures, laboratory assistants, workers of points of rendering the first meditsinskoypomoshcha, and also the persons working at a factory on preparation of blood, its components and drugs are exposed to real threat of infection, the risk of infection extends to medical personnel is not dependent on a profile of treatment-and-prophylactic establishment.

Distribution of incidence of GV among health workers looks as follows: paramedical staff — 54,3%, Younger - 28,3%, Doctors - 17,4%.

Until recently was considered that infection of medical personnel results, mainly, from damage by a needle or (the tool. However even at careful observance of precautionary measures blood, serums or biological liquid, getting on clothes of the medic, it is absorbed by it and get further deep into and if on a body there are cuts or small injuries which can be and are not noticed, damage of skin, dermatitis - risk of infection sharply increases. Besides, also process of further processing of linen and clothes on which got a shelter, its components or other allocations is unsafe.

Any health worker, being engaged professional activity, it cannot be confident that he will not undergo infection today or tomorrow.


General information on intrahospital infections

"An intrahospital infection (hospital, hospital, intra hospital, nozokomialny) - any clinically recognized infectious disease which affects the patient as a result of his receipt in hospital or addresses to it for the medical help, or the staff of hospital owing to their work in this establishment, regardless of emergence of symptoms of a disease in time or after stay in hospital"
European bureau of World Health Organization, 1979.

You should not think that intrahospital infections - trouble only of our clinics. According to the national center of control and prevention of diseases of the USA, at least 90 thousand Americans perish annually because of VBI. Germans register 450 - 650 thousand cases of hospital infections every year and assess damages from them at 3 billion DM. French concretize a situation, declaring that on conscience of medical staff which insufficiently carefully washes hands, in 2001 already 4 million excess koyko-days.

It is necessary to specify that superinfection cases in LGTU also belong to VBI; the carriage of causative agents of traditional infections is also considered as hospital infection inside if it is proved that the patient did not have it before receipt in a hospital.

Do not treat VBI:
- cases of arrival of the patient in a hospital in an infection incubation interval;
- the infections which are natural development of a basic disease and also
- cases of a pre-natal infection and infection of the newborn when passing in patrimonial ways of mother.

Reasonablly in the place of infection to divide all infections registered in hospital on:

инфекции по месту заражения

As infection of VBI it is necessary to distinguish on:

инфекции по месту инфицирования

If the infection develops with the participation of transfer factors i.e. if the activator was brought in an organism from the outside, it is exogenous.

Example: as a result of an inefficient sterilization of instruments and materials at the patient for the 7th days of the postoperative period the suppuration of a postoperative wound caused by Klebsiellapneumoniae developed.

In group of exogenous VBI it is reasonable to distinguish:



Infections, at which
transfer of the activator
it is connected with food
blown, medicinal
the solution, products of medical prescription, etc. infected directly in this medical institution

Infections, at which infection of ready
medicinal solution,
sterile materials
occurred out of this
medical institution.

If the infection develops without participation of factors of transfer and the activator is initially localized in the patient's organism, it is endogenous.

In this group it is necessary to distinguish:






The infections connected with distribution of microflora to surrounding fabrics from the body normal containing own microflora when performing on it any operations

The infections connected with activation of the activator

Infections in
postoperative or puerperal period

The infections connected with an activator translocation from intestines in a circulatory bed

The infections caused by an intestinal dysbiosis decompensation

"A viral hepatitis at children   Inborn heart diseases"