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In the made methodical recommendations the materials on a problem of acute intestinal infections at children published in various sources of information are systematized and generalized. Questions of an etiology, a pathogeny, clinic of acute intestinal infections are stated, and also features of pathogenetic therapy are provided. The made methodical recommendations are intended for subinterns, interns, pediatricians and pediatricians-infectiologists.
The Acute Intestinal Infections (AII) take the leading place in infectious pathology at children, especially early age. In a problem of their studying special relevance at the present stage is acquired by questions of timely early diagnosis; nature of clinical disease; differential diagnosis; developments of the complications leading to failures; and also the carried-out adequate etiopatogenetichesky therapy. Essential feature of OKA is the polietiologichnost and broad range of clinical forms — from subclinical to toxic. Depending on an etiology and a pathogeny of OKA are divided into invasive intestinal infections at which disease-producing factors are shigellas, salmonellas, enteroinvasive escherichias, campylobacters; and secretory — are a cause of illness rotaviruses, adenoviruses, astroviruses, and also bacteria (enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic escherichias) and parasites (cryptosporidiums, isodisputes, balantidiya, a microsporidium).
The structure of intestinal infections considerably changes depending on an epidemic situation. At correctly organized and carefully carried out laboratory diagnosis, at 2/3 sick children it is possible to establish the infectious nature of a disease.
Differential diagnosis of OKA at children of the first year of life in an initial stage of an illness presents great difficulties because of similarity of clinical manifestations.
Competent preliminary diagnosis is important for timely purpose of adequate therapy and hospitalization of patients. Therapy of OKA at children is based on the etiopatogenetichesky principles and provides suppression of life activity of pathogenic microflora — the etiological agent, removal and neutralization of the collected toxic products. Special value has recovery of the broken water and electrolytic exchange, acid-base equilibrium, a hemodynamics, regulatory mechanisms and increase of natural resistance of an organism. The choice of therapeutic actions is based on expressiveness of a toxic syndrome and weight of an illness. Treatment planning is under construction individually, depending on a phase of toxicosis, a type of an eksikoz. Correction of therapy is carried out taking into account age of the patient; premorbidal background; the allocated activator; existence of complications, intercurrent diseases; the treatment which is carried out earlier.