(Sanguisorba officinalis L.) Russian names: burnet medicinal, krasnogolovnik, burnet, bumps, herniary, chernotrav, wild ryabinka. The Belarusian: kryvasmok lekava. The Ukrainian: rodovik lzharskiya.
Burnet medicinal, perennial herbaceous plant of family of rose family (Rosaceae), up to 1 m high. The rhizome is thick, ligneous, horizontal, to 12 cm of length with long thin roots. The stalk is hollow, ridge, direct, in upper part branchy. Radical leaves large, on long scapes, odd-pinnate, with many oblong saw-toothed leaflets. Upper stem leaves smaller, sedentary. Flowers small, dark red, bisexual, consisting of a four-separate cup, without petals, with 4 dark red stamens and 1 column. Are collected in the oval or ovate-cylindrical kolosovidny inflorescences sitting on long peduncules on the ends of branches. The plant blossoms on the 4-5th year of life. A fruit - a dry one-seed nutlet of brown color. Blossoms in June - August, fruits ripen in August - September. The burnet medicinal seeds (generally) and vegetatively breeds (pieces of rhizomes). Life expectancy of a burnet under natural conditions till 40 flyings, in crops - 7 - 8 years. It is widespread everywhere in the Western and Eastern Siberia, in the Far East, the Urals; in the European part of the CIS meets much less often. The burnet medicinal has optimal conditions of growth in poiums on subacidic, there are enough rich, weak and srednegumusny soils. The burnet medicinal takes out only insignificant shading, at stronger generative escapes do not develop. The burnet as a medicinal plant is known since the 16th century.
Collecting and drying of raw materials. Medicinal raw materials are rhizomes with roots (Rhizoma cum radicibus Sanguisorbae) which are prepared during fructification of a plant when it becomes noticeable in herbage on dark red inflorescences. Dig out a plant shovels with the zhelobovidny rounded-off edges. For the purpose of preservation of thickets it is necessary to leave part of plants for resuming (1-2 plants on 10 m). Repeated preparations carry out on one place in 10 flyings.
The dug-out rhizomes with roots are shaken off from the earth, cut off stalks and washed out in cold water. The washed-up raw materials are displayed at once for subdrying. Then cut off the remains of stalks to the basis of rhizomes, cut the last on pieces up to 20 cm long and deliver to the place of drying. Before drying they are dried in the open air, and then dried on the sun, on attics, in dryers or furnaces at a temperature of 40-50 °C. It is not recommended to dry on iron baking sheets and sieves: the raw materials blacken and lose medicinal properties. The raw materials are considered dry if it is not bent, and break. Period of validity of raw materials of 5 years. The taste of raw materials knitting a smell is absent.
Prepare rhizomes and roots of a burnet generally in Siberia where it forms considerable thickets, and also in the Urals, in Tatarstan.
Chemical composition. Rhizomes and roots of a burnet medicinal contain tannins (to 40%), hydrolyzable pyrogallic group, gallic and ellagic acids, starch (about 30%), saponins, dyes, essential oil (1,8%), flavonoids: kempferol, meletin; in leaves there is an ascorbic acid.
Content of tannins in underground bodies as much as possible in a plant budding phase. Contain in rhizomes and roots: ashes - 8,13%; macrocells (mg/g): To - 5,80, Ca - 23,10, Mn - 2,90, Fe-0,40; microelements (KBN): Mg - 0,47, Cu - 0,59, Zn - 1,02, With - 0,04, Cr - 0,03, Al - 0,31, Wa - 5,71, V - 0,12, Se - 1,39, Ni - 1,15, Sr - 6,14, Pb - 0,06, I - 0,10. In - 2,00 mkg/g. Mo, Cd, Li, Au, Ag, Br are not found. Concentrates Zn, Ni, Sr, Se, Wa, especially Wa, Sr.
Pharmacological properties. High content of tannins causes the knitting, antiinflammatory and styptic effect of galenovy drugs of a burnet. The found complex of polyphenols possesses R-vitamin and anti-hypoxemic activity, and also accurately expressed promoting effect on cardiac performance, positively influencing its sokratitelny ability.
Use in medicine. Rhizomes with roots. Broth, liquid extract - as the styptic, knitting, angiospastic, slowing down a peristaltics of intestines and removing spasms, a soothing and strong microbicide; at gastrointestinal diseases (enteritis, colitis, dysentery), at internal bleedings (pulmonary, intestinal, uterine), oral cavity diseases (an ulitis, stomatitis, etc.). In traditional medicine broth - at ponosa of various origin, a blood spitting, uterine bleedings; outwardly - for washing of the bleeding and diapyetic wounds, ulcers, decubituses; in the form of lotions - at burns; rinsing - at inflammatory processes of an oral cavity; bathtubs (sedentary) - at hemorrhoids; syringing - at inflammatory processes of a uterus which are followed by bleedings. Broth gives fast effect at treatment at children of acute purulent conjunctivitis.
Powder - for powders of wounds. Tincture - for greasing of gums.
Elevated part. In homeopathy - haemo static at pulmonary diseases; in gynecology; to diarrhea. In Western Europe, besides, as wound healing, diuretic; at malignant tumors, phlebitis, thrombophlebitises. In traditional medicine outwardly - as an anesthetic at bruises and dislocations.
Leaves. In the Caucasus - at tuberculosis. In Yakutia - haemo static. In the Far East - wound healing, at malignant tumors of gums, have protistotsidny effect. Are used in homeopathy.
Leaves, flowers. In Central Asia - at gastrointestinal diseases, hemorrhoids.
Flowers. In Siberia - at diseases of a respiratory organs, dysentery, have protistotsidny effect.
Dosage forms, route of administration and doses. Liquid extract of a burnet of medicinal (Extractum Sanguisorbae fluidum) for 70% alcohol is accepted till 30-50 drops by 3-4 times a day. Broth of rhizomes and roots of a burnet (Decoctum rhiz. et rad. Sanguisorbae): 6 g (2 tablespoons) of raw materials place in the enameled ware, fill in 200 ml of hot boiled water, close a cover and heat in the boiling water (on the water bath) 30 min., cool at the room temperature of 10 min., filter. The remained raw materials are wrung out. The volume of the received broth is brought boiled water to 200 ml. The prepared broth is stored in the cool place by no more than 2 days. Accept on 1 tablespoon of 5-6 times a day after food as the knitting and styptic means. * The steamed-out burnet grass: 3-4 tablespoons of the crushed grass turn in a gauze, lower in boiled water and put to a sore point.
Use in other areas. The underground part is applied in veterinary science - as knitting, haemo static, anthelmintic and at infectious diseases. Water extraction are effective at fight against the European foul brood of bees. Are edible in the boiled look; are suitable for a tanning of skin. Young leaves (have a peculiar strong cucumber smell) are edible as salad, dried - for seasoning of salads, fragrant teas. Flowers paint fabrics in gray, black and red colors. Melliferous herb. Fodder for all types of cattle, after drain quickly grows. Decorative. It is cultivated.
Cultivation agrotechnology elements. The burnet medicinal is sympathetic on top-dressing by organic and mineral fertilizers. In the early spring, after a descent of snow scatter complex mineral fertilizers at the rate of 30-40 g on 1 m and slightly powder with the earth as the root system of a plant is located in a soil blanket. The same amount of fertilizers is introduced before crops of seeds. Sow them in holes or rows at distance of 15-20 cm, water and powder with mix of the earth, sand and peat in an equal ratio. It is recommended to carry out spring crops by the seeds which passed two-week stratification (at storage in room conditions seeds keep viability 1,5 years). During vegetation the soil around plants is supported in a friable state, pure from weeds. For the second year of culture the mass of underground bodies of one copy reaches 17-27 g. Productivity in culture to 20 c/hectare.