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Anemia

Anemia is a kliniko-hematologic syndrome of which are characteristic reduction of a hemoglobin content in blood unit of volume, is more often at simultaneous reduction of quantity of erythrocytes, leading to development of air hunger of fabrics. It is considered to be as anemia decrease in level of hemoglobin lower than 130 g/l and quantities of erythrocytes are lower 4 * 1012/l at men and respectively lower than 120 g/l and 3,5*1012/l at women.

Classification of anemias

Pathogenetic classification of anemias

I. Anemias owing to blood loss (posthemorrhagic):
a) acute posthemorrhagic anemia;
b) chronic posthemorrhagic anemia.
II. Anemias owing to disturbance of formation of erythrocytes and hemoglobin:
a) iron deficiency anemia;
b) the megaloblastny anemias connected with disturbance of synthesis of DNA;
c) hypoplastic (aplastic) anemia.
III. Anemia owing to the strengthened krovorazrusheniye (hemolitic):
1. Hereditary:
a) the structures of a membrane of erythrocytes connected with disturbance (microspherocytic anemia of Minkowski-Shaffara, an ovalocytosis, akatotsitoz);
b) connected with deficit of enzymes in erythrocytes;
c) connected with hemoglobin synthesis disturbance (drepanocytic anemia, hemoglobinoses, a thalassemia).
2. Acquired.
3. Autoimmune.
IV. Anemias of the mixed genesis.

Morphological classification of anemias

I. Macrocytic anemia (MCV> 100 microns (fl); diameter of erythrocytes> 8 microns) (deficit of B12 vitamin and folic acid, liver illness, preleukosis).
II. Microcytic anemia (MCV <80 microns (fl), diameter of erythrocytes <6,5 microns) (deficit of iron, disturbance of synthesis of a globin, disturbance of synthesis of porphyrine and gem).
III. Normotsitarny anemia (MCV 81 — 99 microns (fl), diameter of erythrocytes is 7,2 — 7,5 microns) (recent blood loss, hemolysis of erythrocytes, hypo - and aplastic anemia, a myelofibrosis).

Classification of anemias by a color indicator

I. Anemia is hypochromia, a color indicator <0,8 (an iron deficiency anemia, sideroakhrestichesky anemia, thalassemias).
II. Anemia is normokhromny, a color indicator 0,85-1,05 (anemia at a chronic renal failure, aplastic anemia, anemia at liver diseases, acute posthemorrhagic anemia).
III. Anemia is hyperchromic, a color indicator> 1,05 (B12-scarce anemia, akhrestichesky anemia, foliyevodefitsitny anemia).

Classification of anemias depending on ability of marrow to regeneration

I. The regenerator form of anemia (with sufficient function of marrow) — reticulocytes is more than 1% (at hemolitic anemias, reticulocytic crisis at treatment by B12 vitamin of pernicious anemia, after blood losses).
II. The hyporegenerative form of anemias (with the lowered regenerator function of marrow) — reticulocytes is less than 1% (at iron deficiency anemias, chronic blood losses).
III. A hypoplastic or aplastic form of anemia (with sharp oppression of processes of an erythrogenesis) — reticulocytes less than 0,2% (at hypoplastic anemias, a panmyelophthisis).
About erythropoietic function of marrow judge by the content in peripheral blood of reticulocytes. Normal content of reticulocytes is 0,2-1%.

 

Help data:

Medical foods at anemias

Classification of anemias according to the automated blood test

The morphological characteristic of anemias taking into account erythrocyte indexes

Types of medicinal immune hemolitic anemias

The factors causing hemolitic anemia

Erythrocyte indexes of main types of anemias

 
"Anemias at a hypothyroidism   Anemia megaloblastny"