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The Volynsk fever — the transmissible antroponozny disease caused by Bartonella (Rochalimeaej quintana which is characterized by repeated attacks of fever with the phenomena of the general intoxication, rash on a trunk, muscle and bones pain.
Synonyms: trench, trench, Flanders, Moldavian-valakhskaya, tibialny, five-day fever, Verner's illness — Gis, a paroxysmal rickettsiosis, etc.
Lat. — febris quintana (wolhynica).
English — trench fever.
Short historical data.
The disease is known since the time of Hippocrates, it was described also by K. Galen famous for the Arab doctor Abu Bekr Muhammad bin Zakiriyey, known in the Christian world as Strike. Similar "feverish states" arose in troops of crusaders in the 12th century, in Louis IX's army in Flanders (are described under the name "febris quintana" — five-day fever). In the Middle Ages the disease was eurysynusic in armies, especially during numerous wars, but as it proceeded is good-quality, long, one of poets of the 12th century called it "rescue during war of idlers and pants". Professor of Yuryevsky university Degio during the Russian-Turkish war of 1877 — 1878 described an illness as a separate form of malaria under the name "Moldavian-valakhskaya fever".
The illness received the name (the Volynsk fever) during trench, position fights of 1915 on Volhynia when among the soldiers who were in trenches fever epidemic began.
But such flashes arose not only on Volhynia, the illness was widely adopted both on East, and on Western fronts, and also in Asia Minor. Depending on a battlefield it was described as the Volynsk, Flanders fever, etc. Many diseased was revealed among soldiers of the English forwarding body on the Western front. British called the arisen illness "trench fever" (trench fever), this name remained in the English-speaking countries and presently. During World War I only among soldiers of the Western front more than one million diseased were revealed.
During World War I the special commission of the Red Cross was engaged in studying of trench fever. They managed to prove in experiments on volunteers that a carrier of a disease is the clothes louse and to find out many other questions connected with epidemiological features of fever (the mechanism and a factor of transfer, duration of the infectious period from the person and a louse etc.).
The rickettsial etiology of a disease was proved in 1916.
N of Toepfer, it is confirmed in 1948 by S. Mossing who described one of his forms under the name "Veygl's illness". At first the activator received the name Rickettsia quintana (Schmincke, 1917), later — Rochalimea quintana (Kreig, 1961), and still later (1993) — Bartonella quintana.
During World War II rise in incidence of the Volynsk fever is observed again — in the German army about 80 000 cases during 1939 — 1943 are registered), besides, many cases of the Volynsk fever were also in the countries in the territory of which there took place military operations.
Now the disease is registered in the form of sporadic cases, most often at inhabitants of the African continent.
Researches of the last decades did not allow to specify the toksonamichesky status of rokhalimiya accurately yet.
During the first and second world wars the disease was registered in camps of Europe, Asia, Africa, America. The Volynsk fever won first place among infectious diseases in medical military statistics of times of World War I. The role of this pathology in modern conditions can significantly increase in connection with heavy economic and social situation of a number of the countries, existence by their territories of military operations, a large number of refugees, and also increase of a flow of illegal migrants to Western Europe from the countries of Africa, Asia, growth of a pediculosis. Unfortunately, so important infection is still very little studied: there are many not clear questions concerning its pathogeny, in particular, of an opportunity and conditions of transition to long and chronic forms, the choice of the most effective medical tactics. There are no means of specific prevention, the unified diagnostic test systems.
Interest in studying of trench fever increases in connection with the received messages on allocation of R. quintana, and also very close microorganisms to it from blood of patients with a syndrome of fever of not clear genesis, at HIV-positive people, at other pathology of the person (in particular, at diseases of cardiovascular system).