Valerian medicinal, perennial herbaceous plant of family of valerian (Valerianaceae), up to 2 m high. A rhizome short (up to 3 cm long), thick (with a diameter up to 2 cm), densely seated by numerous shnurovidny, light-brown roots. The rhizome and roots have a strong specific smell and sweetish and bitterish taste. Straight line stalk, standing, ridge, hollow, above branched. In the first year of life leaves only rozetochny. Leaves are opposite, neparnoperistorassechenny, lanceolate, on edge krupnozubchaty, lower - petiolar, upper - sedentary. Flowers small, light pink, fragrant, are collected in an apical corymbose or corymbose and panicled inflorescence. The plant blossoms on the second year of life. Blossoms from June to August, fruits ripen in July - September. A fruit - an oblong and ovoid mericarp with a plumose cop.
The valerian medicinal seeds and rhizomes breeds. It is widespread almost on all territory of the CIS, except for Far North, Siberia and desert areas of Central Asia. Grows on crude and meadow bogs, on suburbs of bogs, in the crude thinned woods, in floodplains of the rivers, on bushes. In a wild look the valerian of big thickets does not form.
The name a valerian allegedly came from the Latin word "valere" to be healthy and is connected with medicinal action of a plant. According to other version the name is given or in honor of the Roman emperor Valerian (the 3rd century of our era), or in honor of the Roman doctor Pliniya Valerian.
Medicinal properties of a valerian are used by medicine since ancient times. On a nervous system of the person doctors of Ancient Greece knew of its calming action still. Dioskorid considered this plant as the means capable to manage thoughts. Pliny Sr. called it "a Gallic north" and carried to the means exciting thought, Avicenna - to the means strengthening a brain. In the Middle Ages about it spoke as of the medicine bearing complacency, a consent and tranquility, besides, the valerian was esteemed as one of the most popular aromatic means. From here one more name - a ladannitsa, or a forest incense. In Russia it is one of the most known medicinal plants to which magic properties were attributed. Industrial collecting a valerian was organized in Russia at Peter I.
Collecting and drying of raw materials. In the medicinal purposes it is used in the main rhizome with roots. The best time of collecting rhizomes and roots of a valerian - fall when deflowered stalks grow brown and will dry up, however it is possible to bring together them and in the early spring. Repeated preparation on the same place is carried out only after a two-year break. After washing thick rhizomes cut on 2-4 parts, then display a layer 15 cm thick and leave for 1-2 days for a podvyalivaniye on air or in the aired room. After that the raw materials are transferred to a shadow or to well aired room for a dosushivaniye. At thermal drying temperature should not exceed 35 °C; drying at more high temperature leads to losses of essential oil, at the same time the thin overdried roots easily are crushed. If the mass of roots decreased by 75% and when bending they break, the raw materials can be considered dried. Raw materials period of validity 3 years. Roots and rhizomes have a peculiar smell, bitter, a little burning taste.
Chemical composition. The rhizome and roots of a valerian contain up to 3-3,5% of essential oil, isovaleric acid, bornylisovalerianas, baras camphor, borneolovy ethers of ant, oil and acetic acids, pinenes, sequiterpenes, alcohols, and also a number of alkaloids (hatinin, valerin), glikozidny connections (valerozida), valepat-riata, tannins, pitches, some ketones, starch and organic acids (palmitic, stearin, acetic, ant, apple and others). Carry the valepatriata plants which are present at underground part to the main active ingredients of a valerian - valtrat, atsetoksivaltrat, degidrovaltrat. Valepatriata contain in fresh raw materials and in a live plant. In the course of drying they break up with formation of free valerianic acid and its analogs.
With roots contain in rhizomes: ashes - 5,99%; macrocells (mg/g): To - 7,80, Ca - 2,10, Mn - 1,80, Fe-0,50; microelements (KBN): Mg - 0,20, Cu - 0,12, Zn - 0,36, Cr. - 0,13, Al - 0,41, Wa - 0,27, V - 0,19, Se - 2,89, Ni - 0,66, Sr - 0,06, Pb - 0,02,1 - 0,12. In - 8,80 mkg/g. Are not found With, Mo, Cd, Li, Ag, Au, Br. Concentrates Se, Fe.
Pharmacological properties. The valerian has sedative, tranquilizing effect on the central nervous system, regulates cordial activity, possesses spasmolytic and cholagogue properties, strengthens secretion of the ferruterous device of a digestive tract. Drugs of a valerian exert positive neuroregulatory impact on activity of a cardiac muscle and directly on the main mechanisms of automatism of heart and the carrying-out system. Besides, galenovy dosage forms of a valerian possess coronarodilator and hypotensive properties. The valerian is more effective at systematic and prolonged use in view of slow development of therapeutic action.
Use in medicine. Rhizome, roots. Ofitsinalny raw materials. Galenovy drugs (broth, infusion, tincture, dense extract) are applied as a sedative at nervous excitement, neurosises of cardiovascular system, spasms of bodies of a digestive tract; are a part of soothing collecting, camphoric and valerian and landyshevo-valerian drops, "Valocormidum", "Valedrin", "Valosedanum", "Corvalol", "Cardiovalenum", "Valocordin", "Validol", Zelenin's drops, carminative and gastric collecting and Zdrenko's gathering of. In medical practice - at chronic functional frustration of a nervous system, hysteria, epilepsy, spasms, acute vozbuzhdeniye because of a mental injury, at easy forms of a neurasthenia and a psychasthenia, maniac-depressive states, migraine, neuralgia, neurodermatitis, at chronic disturbance of coronary circulation; for treatment and prevention in early stages of stenocardia, an idiopathic hypertensia, at heart diseases; at some diseases of a liver and zhelchevyvodyashchy ways, diseases of the bodies of a digestive tract connected with disturbance of secretory function at dysentery and tifoparatifozny diseases; at functional disturbances of closed glands, hyperfunction of a thyroid gland, not sugar mocheiznureniye, some types of avitaminosis, pre-and climacteric frustration; in stomatology - sedative, at a prevalence of a nervous component in development of periodontosis, a mnogomorfny exudative erythema, in complex therapy of diseases of an oral cavity; is a part of tooth drops. Outwardly - at red flat herpes; for cleaning of skin and reduction of sweating. In the Tibetan medicine - at abscesses and a pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, a blood spitting, bronchitis, a neurasthenia, purulent wounds; in the Mongolian - febrifugal, analgesic; in Korean (outwardly) - at friable gingivas, a dentagra, for emaculation. In traditional medicine tincture, broth, infusion are applied as in scientific and, besides, at an adynamy, a sciatica, dizziness, faints, collapses, tetanus, paralyzes, a spasmophilia, a chorea small, scarlet fever, weakness of sight, rheumatism, a gastralgia, gastric gripes at children, to appetite improvement, at diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhoids, a hiccups, cancer (in particular a rectum, a throat), at a pulmonary tuberculosis, a hypoxia, at malaria, fever, a diabetes mellitus and also as sudorific, diuretic, antiemetic, anthelmintic, detoksikatsionny (at stings of mad animals) means. Infusion, broth in the form of enemas - at gastric gripes, vomiting, spasms at children; wash the head at a headache; at diathesis, epilepsy, chronic ulcers, for washing of eyes. Juice - reduces excitability of the central nervous system and intellectual tension, improves a dream, removes digestive tract spasms, headaches.
Elevated part. The juice (frozen) in cosmetics - at irritations, reddenings, protects from involuntary reduction of facial and hypodermic muscles, tones up and stimulates food and blood circulation of an epidermal layer, helps at an inflammation of eyes, removes redness at sunblisters, strong crusting; fresh - similar to juice from rhizomes and roots, but possesses several times weaker action.
Flowers. Infusion - at typhus.
Dosage forms, route of administration and doses. Infusion of a valerian (Infusum Valerianae): 20 g (2 1/2 tablespoons) of raw materials place in the enameled ware, fill in 200 ml of hot boiled water, close a cover and heat in the boiling water (on the water bath) within 15 min., cool at the room temperature within 45 min., filter, wring out the remained raw materials. The volume of the received infusion is brought boiled water to 200 ml. Appoint on 2-3 tablespoons in 30 min. after food, to children of advanced age - on 1 dessertspoon, children of early age - on 1 teaspoon 3-4 times a day. Broth of a valerian (Decoctum Valerianae): 10 parts of roots and rhizomes of a valerian crush (length of particles has to be no more than 3 mm), fill in 300 ml of water of room temperature, boil within 30 min. on the water bath and cool. Accept 1/2 glasses 3 times a day.
The rhizome with valerian roots, a valerian root (Rhizoma cum radicibus Valerianae) is let out in packagings on 100 g. Store in the dry cool place.
Tinctura Valerianae (Tinctura Valerianae) prepares for 70% alcohol in the ratio 1:5. Represents liquid of reddish-brown color with a characteristic smell and sweetish and bitter spiciness. Under the influence of a sunlight darkens. Appoint inside the adult till 20-30 of drops to reception 3-4 times a day, to children - it is so much drops on reception how many to the child of years. Is issued in bottles on 30 ml.
Extract of a valerian of dense (Extractum Valerianae spissum). The dense mass of dark-brown color with a characteristic smell of a valerian and spicy and bitter taste. Apply in the form of tablets, coated, 1-2 pieces on reception. Each tablet contains 0,02 g of extract of a valerian of dense. Tablets are convenient for reception, however more expressed effect gives freshly cooked infusion of a valerian.
Valerian mixture with fennel. From roots and rhizomes of a valerian prepare broth. Fennel fruits (1 part) crush, fill in with water of room temperature (10 parts), boil on the water bath of 30 min. and insist 45 min. Both broths mix and accept in a warm look on 1 glass in the morning and in the evening.
Corvalol (Corvalolum) - the combined drug containing ethyl ether and-bromizovalerianovoy acid about 2%, natron caustic about 3%, oils of a peppermint of 0,14%, the mixes of alcohol of 96% and water distilled to 100%. Colourless transparent liquid with a specific fragrant smell. On structure and action it is similar to the drugs "Valocordin" and "Milocordinum" (Milocordinum). Apply Corvalol at neurosises with an acrimony, at unsharply expressed spasms of coronary vessels, tachycardia, sleeplessness, in early stages of an idiopathic hypertensia, at enterospasms. Appoint inside till 15-30 drops 2-3 times a day, at tachycardia and vasospasms the single dose can be increased till 40-45 drops. Corvalol is well transferred; even at prolonged use of drug of by-effects usually it is not noted. In some cases in the afternoon drowsiness and slight dizziness can be observed; at reduction of a dose these phenomena pass.
Valocormidum (Valocormidum) - the combined drug containing Tinctura Valerianae and tincture of a lily of the valley on 10 ml, tincture of a belladonna of 5 ml, sodium bromide of 4 ml, menthol of 0,25 g and the distilled water to 30 ml. Transparent liquid of brown color, salty taste with a smell of a valerian and menthol. Apply at the cardiovascular neurosises which are followed by bradycardia. On structure and action it is similar to Zelenin's drops. Appoint till 10-20 drops 2-3 times a day.
Valosedanum (Valosedan) - the combined drug containing 0,3 g of extract of a valerian, 0,15 g of tincture of hop, 0,133 g of Tinctura Crataegi, 0,83 g of tincture of a rhubarb, 0,2 g of barbital of sodium, 20 ml of alcohol, the water distilled to 100 ml. Apply as a calmative at neurosises and a neurasthenia on 1 teaspoon 2-3 times a day.
Angisedin (Angisedin) - drug of production of Switzerland. Contains in 1 tablet of an angisedin: difelina of 100 mg, triturata of a peritrol 12,5, caffeine 50, hydrochloride of an odefenin 15, extract of a valerian 30, phenobarbital of 15 mg. Drug has spasmolytic and sedative effect, expands coronary vessels, stimulates reduction of a myocardium, increasing emission and minute volume of heart. It is applied at chronic coronary insufficiency, prevention of attacks of stenocardia, different cardialgia. Appoint on 1 tablet 3 times a day after food.
Kard-ompin (Card-ompin) - see the Lily of the valley May. Drops camphoric and valerian (Guttae Valerianae cum Camphora). Structure: camphor of 10 g, Tinctura Valerianae to 100 ml. Transparent reddish-brown liquid with a smell of camphor and a valerian. When mixing with water grows turbid, the white deposit of camphor is allocated. Apply as a calmative mainly at cardiovascular neurosises. Appoint till 15-20 drops 3 times a day. Zelenina of a drop - see a peppermint. * Juice of rhizomes and roots of a valerian: wring out in the early spring or in the fall from the cleared and well washed out rhizomes and roots. Accept on 1 teaspoon of juice and honey 3 times a day (the third time surely for the night). * Juice of leaves and the blossoming inflorescences of a valerian is accepted on 1/4 - 1/3 glasses with honey 3 times a day.
Contraindications and possible side effects: as a rule, the valerian is well transferred, however at some patients with an idiopathic hypertensia it gives opposite exciting effect, interrupts a sleep, causes heavy dreams. It is impossible to use its long time in a large number. In such cases it depresses digestive organs, makes a headache, sick, the excited state and breaks action of the heart.
Use in other areas. Rhizomes and roots of a valerian medicinal are applied in veterinary science in the form of infusion and broth: as sedative at vegetative neurosises, spasmolytic at spasms of unstriated muscles of vessels of heart, intestines, anticonvulsant, exciting cordial activity, regulating activity of cardiovascular system, etc. Juice of elevated part is applied in cosmetics and is a part of the Olympia soft drink. Flowers jugs for the prevention of turning sour of milk in them soar.
Melliferous herb. Decorative. The valerian medicinal is widely cultivated, generally in Ukraine, in Belarus, the Voronezh and Novosibirsk regions of Russia, Primorsky Krai.
Cultivation agrotechnology elements. The valerian prefers fertile soils, badly transfers their zakislennost. The drained and tame peat bogs are suitable for its cultivation. The best predecessors are black steam, long-term bean and cereal herbs, root crops and potatoes. In the soil bring 1-2 buckets of manure and a calculated dose of mineral fertilizers on 1 sq.m. At excess of nitrogen fertilizers biological activity of roots decreases. In culture the valerian is made multiple copies seeds. Period of storage of seeds no more than 1 year as they badly keep viability. Sow in the spring or towards the winter, in the fall - in grooves without seal on depth of 3-4 cm. In the spring they close up on depth of 1-2 cm of Distance between rows - 45-60 cm. An expense of seeds - 0,5-0,8 g on 1 m. Shoots appear for the 12-20th day. After emergence of shoots if necessary carry out thinning, leaving plants at distance of 3-4 cm.
At cultivation of a valerian for the 2nd year floriferous stalks cut off 3 times as soon as they reach in height of 20-30 cm. This reception raises a harvest for 30-40% and significantly increases biological activity of rhizomes and roots. Rhizomes and roots of summer crops clean in the fall of the next year, spring and subwinter - the late fall for 1st or 2nd lives when deflowered stalks grow brown and will dry up, but not later than 2-3 weeks before freezing of the soil. With 1 sq.m of an artificial valerian it is possible to receive 0,2-0,4 kg for one vegetation, and with put on growing - to 0,5-0,6 kg of dry raw materials. On seeds it is necessary to leave the largest plants. Seeds are formed for the 2nd year of vegetation and ripen disjointedly (within 30-45 days) therefore in process of maturing they should be collected by an otryakhivaniye. From one plant it is possible to receive up to 0,5 g of seeds. Now in farms valerian grades Kardiola and Maun are cultivated. In culture productivity of underground bodies of 15-25 c/hectare, seeds of 1-2 c/hectare.