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Etiology, Epidemiology, Immunity, Pathogeny - the Toxoplasmosis at pregnant women

Table of contents
Etiology, Epidemiology, Immunity, Pathogeny
Clinic
Diagnosis
Treatment
Diagnosis, clinic and treatment
Approximate schemes of treatment
Diagnosis and treatment at newborns
Prevention

Toxoplasmosis — the eurysynusic zoonotic parasitic disease which is characterized by polymorphism of clinical manifestations and considerable variability of a course of process: from a healthy, asymptomatic carriage, to severe, lethal forms of an illness.

Clinic, diagnosis and treatment of the acquired toxoplasmosis at pregnant women. Prevention of an inborn toxoplasmosis.
(methodical recommendations)

Etiology. The causative agent of toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the Protozoa type, the Sporozoa subtype, Eucoccidia group. T. Gondii — an intracellular parasite, 4 in size — 7 microns.
In the T human body. Gondii can parasitize: in the form of proliferative forms — endozoit, in the form of pseudo-cysts and in the form of true fabric cysts. At cats and other representatives of the cat family of toxoplasma can parasitize also in the form of oocysts which at hit in external environment, can keep viability and an invazionnost during 1,5 — 2. Cysts toksoplazm, being in meat and meat products, can keep viability at a temperature from 2 to 5 °C about one month, but quickly perish at heat treatment and freezing To — 20 °C. Proliferative forms toksoplazm — endozoita which out of an organism remain viable of 30 minutes till several o'clock are least steady against environmental factors.

Epidemiology. Toxoplasma or traces of their presence are found more, than in 200 species of mammals and 100 bird species. The prevalence or contamination of a toksoplazmama averages about 20%. Indicators of a prevalence are higher in regions with warm climate; among persons of a number of professional groups (employees of meat-processing plants, etc.). Contamination of women is, as a rule, 2 — 3 times higher, than men.

Incidence of a toxoplasmosis is many times lower than contamination indicators, however, difficulties of diagnosis and lack of obligatory registration do not allow to judge the true level of an infection,

Susceptibility to a toxoplasmosis — almost universal. Distribution of an infection — universal, in the form of a carriage and sporadic diseases.
The main source of an infection at a toxoplasmosis — homeless, wild and domestic cats in whose organism the activator passes a full development cycle (fabric and intestinal) and in the form of oocysts with excrements of cats is removed outside.

Major factor of transfer — the crude or insufficiently thermally processed meat, meat products with the cysts which are in it toksoplazm. The washed-up greens, vegetables, fruit (from the earth), dirty hands with the activator oocysts which are on them treat accessory factors of a transmission of infection badly.

The main and most frequent way of a transmission of infection — peroral, much less often infection of the person can be carried out percutaneous, transplacental and hemotransfusionic (transplant) in the ways.

The person sick with toxoplasmosis does not constitute epidemiological danger neither to people around, nor to medical personnel that does possible treatment of these patients both in out-patient conditions, and in any somatic hospital.

Immunity. Immunity at a toxoplasmosis unsterile, infectious. The immune condition of an organism remains along with existence in an activator organism, most often in the form of cysts. The antigenic metabolites produced by cysts support a certain level of humoral immunity, and also cause development of hypersensitivity of the slowed-down type.

Pathogeny. The activators which left cysts or oocysts are implemented into epithelial cells of a small intestine where they breed, forming primary affect and getting then into regional lymph nodes, and from them with lymph current — into blood. Dissimination of the activator leads to defeat of the most various bodies and fabrics.

Toxoplasma possess cytopathic action on a cell and in places of their implementation inflammatory granulomas are formed, necroses develop, on site which there is a loss of limy salts — calcificats, characteristic of a toxoplasmosis, are formed. Extent of defeat of this or that body defines further clinical symptomatology of a disease.

Forming of immunity leads to disappearance of the activator from blood, its reproduction in cells stops. True fabric cysts which can are formed it is long, decades, in an intact state, to remain in an organism (a carriage toksoplazm).
At the person the infection, as a rule, flows is good-quality, without development of septic states.



 
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