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Endocrinology

Diabetes mellitus

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Diabetes mellitus
Medical uprazheniye at a diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus - a condition of a chronic hyperglycemia which can develop as a result of influence of the external (endogenous) reasons and genetic factors supplementing each other (by definition of World Health Organization).

Diabetes mellitus — a disease at which in an organism not only carbohydrate metabolism, but also fatty, proteinaceous, water and mineral is broken. Increase of level of sugar in blood (norm — 5,5 mmol/l) and emergence it in urine is noted (normal is absent).

The difficulty of digestion of sugar an organism is caused by deficit of insulin (enzyme of a pancreas, glycolytic) or its low biological activity, and also disturbance of oxidizing and enzymatic processes in muscles and a liver. It leads to increase of appetite, muscular weakness, loss of weight, decrease in working capacity.

The diabetes mellitus is diagnosed more than for 246 million people in the world. In Russia more than 2,7 million patients with a diabetes mellitus are registered, i.e. prevalence makes about 2% of the population (at the same time according to experts the actual prevalence has to be 2-3 times higher), in Europe about 5% of the population are ill a diabetes mellitus. Prevalence of a diabetes mellitus makes 1-2% at people 50 years are younger and more than 10% - at people are more senior than 65 years. According to forecasts of specialists, the number of patients with a diabetes mellitus will double each 12-15 years, i.e. it is possible to speak about diabetes mellitus epidemic among adult population. It is connected with features of way of life of people now (high-calorific food, low physical activity) and the social and economic changes happening in the modern world. Usually in structure of a diabetes mellitus of 90-95% patients with a diabetes mellitus make 2 types. The epidemic scale of prevalence of a diabetes mellitus is connected with this type of a disease.

Classification of a diabetes mellitus

Now the World Health Organization accepted etiological classification of a diabetes mellitus and other disturbances of a glycemia (Report of WHO Consultation, 1999).

1. A diabetes mellitus of 1 type (it is caused by destruction of beta cells of a pancreas, usually leads to absolute insufficiency of insulin):

  • autoimmune;
  • idiopathic.

 2. A diabetes mellitus 2 types (can fluctuate from dominance of an insulinorezistentnost with relative deficit of insulin before dominance of defects of secretion of insulin with an insulinorezistentnost or without it).

3. Other specific types

  • the genetic defects causing dysfunction of beta cells;
  • the genetic defects causing disturbance of effect of insulin;
  • diseases of exocrine part of a pancreas - an endocrinopathy;
  • the infections induced by pharmacological and chemical agents;
  • rare forms immunological caused by a diabetes mellitus;
  • other genetic syndromes which sometimes are combined with a diabetes mellitus.

4. Gestational diabetes - includes the concepts of the broken tolerance used earlier to glucose of pregnant women and a diabetes mellitus of pregnant women.

Signs of an initial stage of diabetes

  1. the increased thirst and dryness in a mouth.
  2. Constant feeling of fatigue and powerlessness, development of impotence. Big loss of body weight or, on the contrary, its sharp increase.
  3. Skin itch, furunkulyoza, bad healing of wounds, eczemas.
  4. At the beginning of a disease diabetes can be cured due to restriction of the use of carbohydrates and decrease in body weight by means of a purposeful exercise stress.

At the first symptoms of a disease to see a doctor.

Risk factors of a diabetes mellitus

Elimination of risk factors

Excess body weight. If fat collects mainly above a belt, the risk of a disease of diabetes increases.

To limit fats and sugar in a diet, at the same time to increase a share of crude fruit and. vegetables. Such ratio of products will help to normalize body weight and will improve work of a pancreas.

Use of a large amount of fats and sugar, frequent overeating. Such diet leads to a pancreas overload that is reflected in production of insulin.

To include microelements, necessary for work of a pancreas, in a diet: sulfur and nickel which contain in the majority of proteins; the zinc possessing ability to increase effect of insulin (zinc in a large number contains in beet).

Lack of food of vitamins (first of all And, In, E) and some microelements (sulfur, nickel, etc.).

To use enough vitamins A, In, E

Insufficient exercise stress.

Regularly (3 — 5 weekly) to carry out the recreational physical training allowing to support throughout all life normal the body weight and to process excess amount of fats and sugar in food.

Artificial feeding of the child. It is proved that development of diabetes can be promoted by some proteins of cow's milk from which substitutes of maternal milk for babies are produced.

To refuse whenever possible artificial feeding of children.

Sugar replacement with honey, berries, fruit and vegetables (beet, carrots) allows to compensate a missing dose of insulin. The microelements which are contained in them, first of all zinc, strengthen effect of insulin.

Sick diabetes it is very important to include the products rich with vitamin E in a diet: whole grains, sunflower oil, a yolk, wheat sprouts, salad, especially a lettuce which contains many vitamins E and And. These two vitamins are useful only in a complex therefore and it is necessary to use them together. Vitamin E is non-toxical, but its high doses in the form of ready drugs increase a blood pressure therefore it is necessary to accept carefully, since small doses.

Alcoholic beverages which can significantly increase the content of sugar in blood are not recommended: sweet and fortified wines, liqueurs, fruit liqueurs, sweet champagne.

At the use of moderate amount of beer (no more than 500 ml) it can be carried to group of the "resolved" drinks since the carbohydrates which are contained in it are compensated by sakharosnizhayushchy effect of alcohol.

Two most frequent acute complications of an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IZSD) - a hypoglycemia and ketoacidosis. At children they are a basic reason of their concern and alarm, and also their parents and tutors as threaten the child's life.

See also Food stuffs at a diabetes mellitus, Medical foods at a diabetes mellitus.

Folk remedies and phytotherapy

In addition to lowering of the level of sugar in blood medicinal plants promote partial recovery of the cells of a pancreas producing insulin.

At treatment by a diet and phytodrugs it is necessary to control constantly sugar level in blood. Considering character of a disease, according to the recommendation of the doctor it is necessary to choose the most suitable from the means given below.

In initial
stages
diabetes

To drink much and constantly broth of tops of blackberry usual.

At
not severe forms of diabetes

To make 1 teaspoon of the crushed bilberry leaves (to collect in May — June) 1 glass of boiled water, to insist 30 min. on a hot plate. To cool, filter. To drink 0,3 — 0,5 glasses of 3 — 5 times a day to food. Are useful as well bilberry berries.

At more severe forms of diabetes

• To place 50 g of leaves in the enameled ware
nettles (it is better fresh) and to fill in 500 ml of boiled water.
In 2 h infusion to filter and drink 1 tea
to spoon 3 times a day to food. To use a nettle
and in food and to prepare leaves and escapes of a young nettle for the winter (to dry, salt, make sour).
• Each meal has to be followed
the use of the plants having bitter taste:
yarrow, bitterling (water pepper), wormwood,
mustard, dandelion, hawkweed, Sophora Japanese,
erysimum gray it (is furious)
, etc. Bitterness strengthen activities of a pancreas for production of insulin, and sugar in blood significantly decreases.

Patients with a non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (diabetes of the II type) can use medicinal plants, separately, or in a complex with a diet and an exercise stress or with the drugs reducing the content of sugar in blood.

The patients suffering from an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (diabetes of the I type), medicinal plants are used in combination with a diet, an insulin therapy and exercise stresses which promote reduction of a daily dose of the entered insulin.



 
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