Expansion of a gleam of a gullet. The gleam of a gullet is normal equal to 2 — 2,8 cm, in places of anatomic narrowings (a ring - pharyngeal, aortal, phrenic) — 1,4 — 1,5 cm. The sizes of a gleam of more specified figures indicate its expansion. Distinguish diffusion and local (limited) expansion of a gleam of a gullet. Diffusion expansion of a gleam of a gullet is characterized by significant increase in a gleam of a gullet to 10 — 15 cm and combined with the disturbance of passability and lengthening of a gullet, a peristaltics, an antiperistalsis indicating passability disturbance. Local expansion of a gleam of a gullet arises in the presence of an obstacle above which the gullet kompensatorno extends; it is combined with passability disturbance, an antiperistalsis, regurgitation. Morphological substrate — neurogenic frustration of the polyetiological nature, an inflammatory and tumoral infiltration, growth of connecting fabric, etc., is observed at an achalasia, a cardiospasm, an esophagitis, an ulcer, cicatricial and ulcer strictures, a burn, tumor, etc. It is distinguished at roentgenoscopy, a X-ray analysis with use of a contrast agent in various projections in vertical and horizontal position of the patient. Regurgitation — spontaneous intake of contrast medium from a stomach, belly, chest and cervical parts of a gullet in a throat and an oral cavity. Expansion arises owing to functional disturbances or organic processes (an inflammation, hems, a tumor) in a gullet and can be followed by an antiperistalsis, expansion of a gleam. The river arises at imperfection of the switching device of the cardia at children of early age, an incompetence of cardia at adults, at an achalasia, a cardiospasm, phrenic hernia, an esophagitis, a gullet ulcer, burns, a cicatricial and ulcer stricture, a tumor, etc. It is distinguished at roentgenoscopy and a X-ray analysis using a contrast agent in various projections, in vertical and horizontal position of the patient, at X-ray cinematography.