Prolapse of the mitral valve
As the term the prolapse of the mitral valve is understood a deflection of a shutter or shutters of the valve in the direction opposite to a blood flow that, as a rule, is followed by emergence of regurgitation. Most often the prolapse of the mitral valve meets, is much more rare — aortal and three-leaved.
Rheumatism, infectious endocarditis, system lupus erythematosus and some other diseases — along with surgical interventions, can serve as the reason of the acquired prolapse. However the isolated inborn prolapse of the mitral valve (prevalence in population about 2%) which is a consequence of a myxomatous degeneration of shutters of the valve most often meets. In a small number of cases the prolapse can be combined with other symptoms of undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasias, and also meet at Marfan's syndrome.
Clinical picture of a prolapse of the mitral valve
In most cases the prolapse of the mitral valve proceeds asymptomatically and is good-quality, i.e. without significant disturbances of a hemodynamics.
Persons with the isolated inborn prolapse of often adynamic constitution. Frequent complaints to the pricking pains in the field of a top of heart, heartbeat, a sinking heart, difficulty of breath at such patients in most cases have neurotic character and are not connected with a prolapse.
At the patient's auscultation with a prolapse of the mitral valve between I and II tones one more is listened — systolic click behind which — in case of existence of the return blood flow, the systolic noise accruing to the II tone follows.
Occasionally the prolapse of the mitral valve is followed by considerable degree of regurgitation that, by analogy with mitral insufficiency, results in stagnation in a small circle of blood circulation and to emergence of the corresponding symptoms.
Hemodynamically significant prolapse of the mitral valve is risk factor of development of an infectious endocarditis; at such persons more often than in population, rheumatism meets.
At an asymptomatic current treatment of a prolapse of the mitral valve is not required. At emergence of clinic treatment is carried out according to the principles of maintaining the patient with mitral insufficiency.