Beginning >> Articles >> Archives >> Practical hematology of children's age

Remission and recurrence of an acute leukosis - Practical hematology of children's age

Table of contents
Practical hematology of children's age
Embryonal hemopoiesis
Morfofunktsionalny characteristic of cells of marrow and peripheral blood
Marrow parenchyma cells
Peripheral blood of children of different age
The system of a hemostasis is normal
Etiology and pathogeny of leukoses
Acute leukoses
Acute leukoses - a preleukosis
Possibilities of a predictive assessment of a course of an acute lymphoblastoid leukosis at children
General principles of treatment of an acute leukosis
Chemotherapeutic drugs
Treatment of an acute lymphoblastoid leukosis
Treatment of myeloid forms of an acute leukosis
Infectious complications and symptomatic therapy of an acute leukosis
Consolidation and maintenance therapy of an acute leukosis
Immunotherapy
Remission and recurrence of an acute leukosis
Inborn leukosis
Neuroleukosis
Myelosis
Lymphogranulomatosis
Gematosarkoma
Macrofollicular lymphoma
Angioimmunoblastny lymphadenopathy
Leukemoid tests
Infectious lymphocytosis
Infectious mononucleosis
Leukemoid tests of different types
Dysfunctions of granulocytes
Leukopenias
Histiocytoses
Histiocytoses - an eosinophilic granuloma
Malignant histiocytosis
Family erythrophagocytal histiocytosis
Accumulation diseases
Nimann's illness — Peak
Angiopathies
Hemorrhagic vasculitis (Shenleyn's illness — Genokh)
Mayokki's purpura
Ataxy teleangiectasia
Entsefalotrigeminalny angiomatosis
Kortiko-meningealny diffusion angiomatosis
Cerebroretinal angiomatosis
Hypertrophic gemangiektaziya
Multiple and huge hemangiomas
Elastic fibrodisplaziya
Coagulopathies
Hereditary coagulopathies
Hemophilia And
Clinic of hemophilia
Treatment of hemophilia
Angiohemophilia
Cristmas disease (Kristmas's illness)
Hereditary deficit of factors of XI, XII, XIII and I
Dysfibrinogenemias
Hereditary deficit of factors of VII, X, V and II
Deficit K-vitaminozavisimykh of factors of coagulation
Syndrome of the disseminated intravascular coagulation
Clinic and diagnosis of the IDCS
Treatment of the IDCS
Thrombocytopenia
Idiopathic Werlhof's disease
Clinic and diagnosis of an idiopathic Werlhof's disease
Treatment of an idiopathic Werlhof's disease
Isoimmune Werlhof's disease
Transimmune Werlhof's disease of newborns
Trombogemolitichesky Werlhof's disease (syndrome Moshkovich)
Hereditary Werlhof's diseases
Trobotsitopatiya
Anemias
The anemias connected with blood loss
Chronic posthemorrhagic anemia
Iron deficiency anemias
Clinic and diagnosis of an iron deficiency anemia
Treatment of iron deficiency anemias
Sideroakhrestichesky, sideroblastny anemias
Megaloblastny anemias
Foliyevodefitsitny anemia
Hereditary forms of megaloblastny anemias
Hereditary dizeritropoetichesky anemias
The anemias connected with oppression of proliferation of cells of marrow
Hereditary hypoplastic anemias
Hemolitic anemias
Hemolitic anemias - an ovalocytosis, a hereditary stomatocytosis
Acanthocytosis, piknotsitoz
The hereditary hemolitic anemias connected with disturbance of activity of enzymes of erythrocytes
The hereditary hemolitic anemias connected with disturbance of structure or synthesis of hemoglobin
The acquired immune hemolitic anemias
Isoimmune hemolitic anemias
Treatment of a hemolitic illness of newborns
Autoimmune hemolitic anemias
List of references

Modern therapy of acute leukoses considerably allowed to change the course of pathological process. At children's age the acute leukosis became a disease with a wavy current, with the periods of remissions and aggravations. At treatment of an acute leukosis at children, especially lymphoblastoid forms, the doctor is faced by a task to achieve remission. Under remission (from armor. remissio — easing) understand a symptom complex of the kliniko-hematologic data testimonial of lack of symptoms of an acute leukosis. But remission — yet does not mean recovery. As show numerous supervision, in an organism of patients there are single or multiple centers of a leukemic infiltration. At the same time achievement of remission, its long period at children with an acute lymphoblastoid leukosis do essentially possible an absolute recovery. However cases when even superlong remissions after cancellation of chemotherapy came to an end with process recurrence are known. This fact also demonstrates preservation of the minimum leukemic pool of cells able to lead to an exacerbation of a disease. Use of a himioimmunoterapiya during remission allows to speak about the forecast as there is a possibility of an eradikation of the remained pool of tumor cells by immune forces of an organism more optimistically.
Any remission develops under the influence of cytostatic drugs. At the same time there is a certain staging of changes of a marrowy hemopoiesis. During the first 10 days the moderate cytopenia, as a rule, with disappearance of blast cells from peripheral blood develops. Further there comes the hypoplasia of a marrowy hemopoiesis which is an obligatory phase for receiving remission. After 3-4 weeks of treatment signs of regeneration of a hemopoiesis with increase of quantity of thrombocytes, leukocytes, reticulocytes are noted. In 6 weeks a normal hemopoiesis is recovered that demonstrates remission development. According to the criteria offered N. by Bisel (1956) distinguish full and partial remission. Remission signs following.

  1. Marrow: 1. Content of blasts is less than 5%, and together with lymphocytes — no more than 20%. Normal morphology of cells of erythroidal, megakariotsitarny and granulotsitarny sprouts with recovery of their ratio. 2. Reduction of maintenance of blast cells, together with lymphocytes — no more than 70%. Increase in cells of a normal hemopoiesis up to 30%. 3. Changes are less expressed, than in item 2 or absolutely are absent.
  2. Peripheral blood: 1. Imperious cells are absent, quantity of granulocytes not less than 1,5ò109/l, thrombocytes — not less than 100 X 109/l, hemoglobin — not less than 110 g/l. 2. The maintenance of blast cells decreased. Within a month the level of hemoglobin is not less than 90 g/l. 3. Changes are less expressed, than in item 2 or absolutely are absent.
  3. Signs of a leukemic infiltration: 1. There are no signs of a leukemic infiltration of a spleen, liver, lymph nodes and other bodies. 2. Not less than for 50% reduction of number of bodies with a leukemic infiltration is noted. 3. Changes are absent.
  4. Other clinical signs: 1. There are no clinical signs of an acute leukosis. 2. The return dynamics of clinical symptoms is noted. 3. Changes are absent.

Full remission means a combination of criteria of A-1, V-1, S-1 and D-1. Various other combinations of criteria demonstrate partial remission or its absence. The possibility of achievement of full remission at most of children allows to allocate partial remission as a stage of induction therapy testimonial of its efficiency. But need of preservation of chemotherapy in full remains up to receiving full remission. From these positions in pediatric practice it is necessary to be guided by the accurate criteria allowing to diagnose full remission and to respectively change therapy tactics. Such criteria similar to the above are developed by J. Bernard (1965). In modern modification understand the state which is characterized as full kliniko-hematologic remission: a) lack of clinical signs of an acute leukosis for not less than 1 month; b) contents in a miyelogramma of blast cells no more than 5% and lymphocytes — no more than 30%, recovery of a ratio of an eritro-granulotsitarny sprout 1: 3 and megakariotsitarny sprout; c) normalization of composition of peripheral blood (Hb — is not lower than 120 g/l, leukocytes — not less than 4 X 109/l, of thrombocytes — more than 100 X 109/l), lack of blast cells in peripheral blood.
At establishment of the diagnosis of kliniko-hematologic remission conduct a course of consolidating and begin a maintenance therapy. If full remission is established, the fact of its existence has to be confirmed by clinical symptomatology and data of peripheral composition of blood, and also researches of leykokontsentrat and miyelogramma. Also wide use of a trepanobiopsiya for identification of the possible centers of a leukemic infiltration is recommended.
In the developed opinion, existence of full kliniko-hematologic remission for 5 — 6 is regarded as recovery and is the indication to therapy cancellation.
Despite considerable achievements in treatment of acute leukoses, at most of children the exacerbation of a disease is noted. At acute lymphoblastoid leukoses it is possible to achieve repeated remissions. In this case when drawing the diagnosis it is necessary to specify sequence number of remission.
Recurrence of an acute leukosis is shown by return of clinical and hematologic signs of a disease. However clinically the aggravation is characterized by certain features, in comparison with a primary and active phase of an acute leukosis. Dispensary observation for children allows to reveal recurrence signs early. Therefore against clinical wellbeing and a good subjective shape signs of a hematologic aggravation — change of a miyelogramma, shifts in analyses of peripheral blood are noted. Often recurrence is shown by the extramedullary centers of leukemic process at safe function of marrow. In these cases specific defeat of a nervous system, lungs, testicles, skin, bone system etc. is noted. Further the clinical picture can gain the lines similar to a primary and active phase of a disease. However and in these cases they are, as a rule, less expressed. Considering a possibility of receiving at an acute lymphoblastoid leukosis at children of repeated remissions, topical issue now, early diagnosis of recurrence is. It in many respects is defined by efforts of pediatricians on the places exercising kliniko-hematologic control of sick children, completeness of special and additional methods of research at control surveys of the specialist hematologist.
The progression of tumoral process leads to development of the terminal period of an acute leukosis. For lack of chemotherapy the terminal period was defined as natural continuation and completion of leukemic process. Now the terminal period is considered as a disease phase at which the refrakternost to cytostatic drugs develops. In a clinical picture the symptoms caused by a hypoplasia of a marrowy hemopoiesis prevail. Development of a pantsitopeiiya is caused, on the one hand, by a progression of the main process, with another — cytostatic influence. Most of patients are in a serious condition. Symptoms of intoxication are expressed, defeat of cardiovascular system with development of heart failure is observed. There are heavy bleedings. Often during the terminal period consecutive infection joins. At a number of patients it is possible to note the generalization of tumoral process which is followed by emergence of the metastatic centers in kidneys, a myocardium, fast increase in a spleen, liver, lymph nodes. During this period quite often there is a parenchymatous damage of a liver with development of jaundice and increase of a liver failure. But even the end-stage should not serve as a cause of failure from active treatment. In these cases it is necessary to use serially all available cytostatic drugs.
Among causes of death at an acute leukosis at children intoxication caused by a basic disease on the second — hematencephalons and a meninx, on the third — leukemic pneumonia and consecutive infection is on the first place.



 
"Workshop on nervous diseases and neurosurgery   Practical training on pharmaceutical technology of drugs"