Heart diseases — the changes of structures of heart (valves, ventricles, auricles, the departing vessels) breaking the movement of blood in heart or on big and small circles of blood circulation, inborn or acquired.
The acquired heart diseases
The acquired heart diseases are called the changes in the valve device of heart, in auricles and ventricles, and also in nearby vessels arising during postuterine development. The combined mitral, aortal and mitral and aortal defects are the most widespread. The isolated stenoses and insufficiency of valves, and also defects of the right half of heart meet less often.
Stenoses of valves of the left half of heart lead to the reduced intake of blood in a big circle of blood circulation, and the right half — in a small circle.
Insufficiency of valves usually is followed by the return current (regurgitation) of blood: at insufficiency of the aortal valve or valve of a pulmonary artery blood in the period of a diastole comes respectively to the left or right ventricle of heart; at insufficiency of the mitral or tricuspid valve blood during a systole comes respectively to the left or right auricle. Now by means of doppler sonography it is possible to estimate degree of regurgitation and thus to judge expressiveness of valve insufficiency.
Inborn heart diseases represent group of anomalies of development of the heart and nearby vessels which main distinctive feature are moderate or insignificant disturbances of a hemodynamics. They treat group of so-called "white defects" at which pathological dumping of blood comes from blood circulation, big in a small circle, or is absent absolutely. Others among them defects of interatrial and interventricular partitions, an open arterial channel, aorta coarctation meet more often.
In most cases it is not possible to allocate any factor leading to forming of inborn heart disease. Quite often the pre-natal viral infection is the reason of multiple inborn pathology: rubella, flu, epidemic parotitis. Often inborn heart diseases are associated with chromosomal anomalies — such as Down syndrome, Turner, etc., or the separate dot mutations giving to defect, for example, to defect of an interatrial partition, family character. Sometimes emergence of inborn defect contacts various intoxications and/or metabolic disturbances in mother's organism.
Problems of physiotherapy exercises at heart diseases: to influence obshcheukreplyayushche an organism, to adapt it for exercise stresses, to improve work of cardiovascular system and other bodies.
Starting positions when performing exercises — in the beginning lying and sitting, then standing. Include in occupations the dosed walking, exercises with objects, and in process of improvement of a state — walking on skis at slow speed. At the compensated heart diseases with permission and under control of the doctor it is possible to be engaged in separate sports: to float, ski, skate, ride a bicycle, to play volleyball, towns, table and big tennis.