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Fundamentals of practical urology of children's age

Table of contents
Fundamentals of practical urology of children's age
Anomalies of kidneys
Rudimentary kidney
Accessory kidney
Doubling of uric bodies
Anomalies of position of kidneys
Nephroptosis
Polycystosis of kidneys
Sponge kidney
Multicystosis, simple cyst of a kidney
Kidney polymegacalycosis
Cystinuria, kidney oxarods
Renal meliturias, nephrogenic not diabetes mellitus
Nephrite with salt loss, tubular acidosis
Anomalies of vessels of a kidney
Anomalies of ureters
Obstacles out of an ureter gleam
Hydronephrosis
Narrowing of an ureteric and vesical segment
Divertikulopodobny formations of an ureter
Vesicoureteral reflux
Ectopia of the mouth of an ureter
Patent urachus
Bladder diverticulum
Ekstrofiya of a bladder
Anomalies of an urethra
Treatment of defects of development of an urethra
Anomalies of a penis
Anomalies of quantity of testicles
Anomalies of provision of testicles
Etiology and pathogeny of nonspecific inflammatory diseases of kidneys
Pyelonephritis
Abscess and anthrax of a kidney
Treatment of acute pyelonephritis
Chronic pyelonephritis
Treatment of chronic pyelonephritis
Pyonephrosis
Paranephritis
Cystitis
Paracystitis
Urethritis
Nonspecific inflammatory diseases of generative organs at boys
Tuberculosis of urinogenital system
Genital tuberculosis
Injuries of kidneys and ureters
The isolated damages of ureters
Injuries of a bladder
Injuries of an urethra
Treatment of injuries of an urethra
Damages of generative organs at boys
Damages of a scrotum
Damages of testicles and appendages
Injury of a prostate gland
Urolithiasis
Stones of kidneys and ureters
Diagnosis of stones of kidneys and ureters
Treatment of stones of kidneys and ureters
Stones of a bladder and urethra
Foreign bodys of a bladder and urethra
Kidney tumor
Bladder tumors
Urethra tumors
Tumors of generative organs
Neurogenic frustration of an urination
Nephrogenic hypertensia
Acute insufficiency of kidneys
Chronic insufficiency of kidneys
Extrarenal depuration
Diseases of external genitals with urological symptomatology at girls
Renal colic
Hamaturia
Anury
Acute ischuria
Small egg torsion
Acute edema of covers of a small egg and seed cord

Fundamentals of practical urology of children's age.

Alexey Vladimirovich Lyuljko, Dmitry Diomidovich Murvanidze, Alexander Fedorovich Vozianov — 1984.
Anatomo-physiological features of bodies of urinogenital system at children, semiotics, all-clinical and radiological methods of research are covered in the manual. The etiology, a pathogeny, pathological anatomy, a clinical current, differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention practically of all urological diseases and anomalies which are found at children are described. Questions of urgent urology at acute insufficiency of kidneys, injuries of bodies of urinogenital system are considered, etc. The principles of surgical interventions on bodies of urinogenital system at children are stated.
For students of institutes of improvement of the doctors specializing in the field of children's urology. Can be useful to urologists, children's surgeons, pediatricians, radiologists.


Now more than 20% of all sick children have diseases of bodies of urinogenital system. It is also necessary to note that not less than a half of the adults having chronic diseases of bodies of urinogenital system for the first time got sick at children's age. Children with diseases of urinogenital system often long time are under supervision of pediatricians of whom only patients with visible anomalies or with the expressed dysfunctions of bodies of urinogenital system come into the view. Therefore for the solution of the problems connected with anomaly and pathology of kidneys, uric ways and generative organs at children efforts not only pediatricians, but also urologists, radiologists, surgeons, biochemists and other specialists are required. Rapid development for the last decade of urology and nephrology, accumulation of new data on physiology of urinogenital system at children, production of special tools and the equipment, achievements of anesthesiology caused need of training of specialists on children's urology, and also creations of specialized children's urology and nephrology units.
In the real grant attempt to generalize experience of the Soviet and foreign scientists in the field of diagnosis and treatment of diseases of bodies of urinogenital system at children, data of special pilot studies, and also long-term experience of the authors of a grant who are engaged in studying of this problem is made.
Along with anatomy and physiology of urinogenital system at children features of use of clinical and radiological methods of research are considered; much attention is paid to questions of ethnology, a pathogeny, clinic, diagnosis and treatment of urological diseases and anomalies of bodies of urinogenital system at children's age. For the first time material on rendering the acute urological management to children at injuries of bodies of urinogenital system, acute insufficiency of kidneys, acute inflammatory processes is given in literature. At the modern level the principles of surgical interventions on urinogenital bodies at children are stated.
Authors will be grateful to readers for all notes and wishes directed to improvement of this book.

ANOMALIES OF URIC SYSTEM

In medicine the term "anomaly" (Greek anomalia) is used for designation of the inborn resistant, usually not progressing deviation from normal structure and function of this or that body.

Anomalies of uric system have special value in view of the exclusive frequency — they make up to 35 — 40% of anomalies of all bodies and systems. In children's urological clinic patients meet such pathology in 30 — 35% of cases (according to our data — in 33%).
A big variety of anomalies causes the necessity to classify them. The classification given below essentially does not differ from standard though small amendments are introduced in it.
I. Kidneys

  1. Anomalies of quantity: agenesia of one or both kidneys; kidney hypoplasia; accessory kidney; doubling of a kidney.
  2. Anomalies of situation: a kidney allotopia in relation to skeletal educations; on the relation to each other; nephroptosis; wrong rotation of a kidney.
  3. Cystous and tubulo-medullary anomalies: polycystosis of kidneys, sponge kidney; simple cyst of a kidney; polymegacalycosis.
  4. Anomalies of a microstructure: a tubulopatiya with a polyuria, canalicular an osteopathy; a tubulopatiya with a nephrolithiasis; renal tubular acidosis.
  5. Anomalies of vessels of a kidney: verkhnepolyarny And nizhnepolyarny vessels, the intra renal drawing vessel, narrowing and aneurism of a renal artery.
  6. Inborn arteriovenous fistulas.
  7. Inborn changes of renal veins: anomalies of the right renal vein (multiple veins, falling of a yaichkovy vein into a renal vein on the right); anomalies of the left renal vein (ring left renal vein, retro aortal left renal vein, ekstrakavalny confluence of the left renal vein).
  8. Lokhanochno-chashechnaya system

Doubling and diverticulum of a pelvis, extrarenal pelvis and cup, cup allotopia.

  1. Ureter
  2. Anomalies of number: doubling of an ureter (full, incomplete, splitting of the lower part).
  3. Anomalies of situation (direction): cross allotopia of an ureter, retrocaval and retroiliakalny ureter.
  4. Anomalies of caliber: narrowing (single, multiple, in LMS, in PMS, on an extent), a spiral-shaped ureter.
  5. Anomalies of the termination: the ectopia is intravesical, narrowing of a vesical opening with the ureterotsel.
  6. Neuromuscular dysplasia (megaureter. ureter achalasia).
  7. Lower parts of uric ways
  8. Anomalies of a bladder: ekstrofiya, diverticulum, bladder neck contracture.
  9. Anomalies of an urethra:

narrowing, doubling, hypospadias, epispadiya, urethra valves, urethra diverticulum, hypertrophy of a seed hillock.



 
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