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General oncology

Table of contents
General oncology
Epidemiology of tumors
Anticarcinogenic fight
Multistaging of process of carcinogenesis
Metabolism of carcinogenic substances in an organism
Interaction of carcinogens with nucleic acids
Reparation of damages of DNA caused by carcinogenic substances
Molekulyarnogenetichesky mechanisms of multistage carcinogenesis
Communication of oncogenes of ras family with neoplasms of the person and animals
Active oncogenes in neoplasms of the animals induced by carcinogenic substances
Active oncogenes and multistage carcinogenesis
Possible mechanisms of action of onkobelok
Factors of internal environment of an organism and carcinogenesis
Cancerogenic agents and mechanisms of their action
Characteristic of cancerogenic action of chemical compounds
Oncogenous effect of polymeric materials
General patterns of action of chemical carcinogenic substances
Molecular and biological mechanisms of effect of chemical carcinogens
Physical cancerogenic agents
Cancerogenic action of ultraviolet rays
Injury role in development of tumors
Biological cancerogenic agents
The DNA-containing oncogenous viruses
RNK-soderzhashchiye oncogenous viruses
Molecular mechanism of transformation of cells oncogenous viruses
Influence of external environment on emergence and development of tumors
Chemical carcinogenic substances in the Wednesday surrounding the person
About a ratio of a role of natural and anthropogenous sources of PAU
Primary and secondary sources of PAU
Questions of circulation and samoobezvrvzhivaniye of cancerogenic PAU in environment
Cancerogenic nitroso compounds
Cancerogenic mycotoxins and other factors
Physical cancerogenic agents of the environment surrounding the person
The modifying carcinogenesis factors
Professional tumors
The oncological diseases caused by diagnostic and therapeutic influences
The incidence of malignant tumors caused by life factors
Indirect cancerogenic influences
Role of "lifestyle" in carcinogenesis
Influence of internal environment of an organism on emergence and development of tumors
Kankrofiliya syndrome
Kankrofiliya and cancer
Age and cancer
Constitution, obesity and cancer
Diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and cancer
Food factors, limited physical activity and cancer
Functioning of system of immunity, psychosomatic factors, system of a blood coagulation and cancer
Sexual distinctions in development of cancer
Risk factors, metabolic epidemiology of cancer
Pathogenetic options of a current, impact on internal environment for prevention and treatment
Paraneoplastic syndromes
Genetic predisposition to cancer
Hereditary diseases of immunity
Hereditary diseases of immunity of a disease of a nervous system
Hereditary diseases of reproductive and endocrine system
Hereditary diseases of an alimentary and urinary system
Hereditary diseases of vessels, bones, lungs
Hereditary damage of skin and its appendages
Hereditary defeats of disturbance lympho-and hemogenesis, metabolism
Hereditary multiple defeats, not hereditary tumors
Progression and innidiation of a tumor
Influence of a tumor on metastasises
About antimetastatic body resistance
Stress and innidiation
Innidiation immunology
Hematogenous innidiation
Morphology of tumoral growth
Ultrastructure of tumor cells
Histochemistry, tkanespetsifichesky markers of tumors
Kinetics of cell populations of a tumor
Mechanisms of an invasion of tumor cells
Innidiation of tumors
Nomenclature of tumors
Classification of tumors
Concept about "early" cancer
The main objectives and methods of work of a pathomorphologist in oncology
The solution of questions of a biological order on oncological material
Ratio of patogistologichesky and cytologic methods of research in morphological diagnosis
Modern ideas of a precancer
Pilot and statistical studies of a precancer
Malignant tumors and pregnancy
Cancer of a neck of uterus and pregnancy
Cancer of a uterus, ovaries and pregnancy
Breast cancer and pregnancy
Cancer of a thyroid gland, brain, lymphogranulomatosis and pregnancy
Cancer of a lung and pregnancy
Colon cancer and pregnancy
Cancer of a kidney, adrenal glands and pregnancy
Sarcomas and pregnancy
Malignant melanoma of skin and pregnancy
Leukoses and pregnancy
Influence on an embryo and fruit himio-and radiation therapy
Purposes and problems of sanitary and hygienic prevention of malignant tumors
Prevention of action on people of physical cancerogenic factors
Features of a problem of chemical carcinogenic substances
Means and methods of identification and assessment of danger of chemical cancerogenic factors of environment
Hygienic regulation of chemical cancerogenic agents
Monitoring of chemical cancerogenic agents in environment
Technology ways of prevention of action on people of chemical carcinogenic substances
Sealing of production and catching of carcinogens from industrial emissions
Dekantserogenization of cancerogenic products
Questions of prevention of cancerogenic influences
Organization of anticarcinogenic fight
Patterns of prevalence of malignant new growths
Dynamics of indicators of oncological incidence
Mortality of the population
Forecast of incidence of malignant new growths
Methodological aspects of an assessment of activity of oncological service
Indicators of anticarcinogenic fight
The automated systems of processing of oncological information
Identification of new growths at annual medical examination of the population
Routine inspections
Allocation of groups of high risk
Methods of mass inspection of the population
Biographical and polling method
Use of the automated systems of inspection
Social and economic problems of anticarcinogenic fight
Costs of oncology and economic efficiency of anticarcinogenic actions
Classification of malignant tumors, definition of clinical groups
Principles of diagnosis of malignant new growths
Features of radiodiagnosis of malignant new growths
Features of radiodiagnosis of tumors of a digestive tract
Features of radiodiagnosis of tumors of bodies of a thorax
Features of radiodiagnosis of tumors of a mammary gland
Features of radiodiagnosis of tumors of female generative organs
Features of radiodiagnosis of tumors of an urinary system
Features of radiodiagnosis of tumors of a musculoskeletal system
Features of radiodiagnosis by means of a limfografiya
Radionuclide diagnosis of malignant new growths
Stsintigrafiya of adrenal glands, soft tissues, thyroid gland
Stsintigrafiya of lungs, brain, thymic and sialadens
Ultrasonic diagnosis
Private ekhografichesky semiotics of tumors of the main available localizations
Cytomorphological diagnosis
Termografiya
Immunodiagnosis
Identification of tumoral markers in blood and other biological liquids
General principles of endoscopic researches
Ezofagogastroduodenoskopiya
Endoscopic research of the operated stomach, a rectum
Fibrokolonoskopiya
Endoscopy of upper respiratory tracts
Bronkhoskopiya
Endoscopy in an onkoginekologiya
Endoscopy in an onkourologiya
Mediastinoskopiya
Parasternal mediastinotomy
Torakoskopiya, laparoscopy, diagnostic thoracotomy
Principles and methods of treatment of patients
Surgical treatment
Beam treatment
Physical and radio biological bases of radiation therapy of malignant tumors
Radiotherapeutic equipment and methods of radiation of the patient
Radio biological planning of distribution of a dose in time
Chemotherapy
Classification and selection of antineoplastic drugs
Types of chemotherapy of tumors, choice of tsitostatik
Reasons of resistance to effect of antineoplastic drugs
The combined chemotherapy of malignant new growths
Additional chemotherapy
Regional, local and complex chemotherapy of tumors
General characteristic and classification of complications of chemotherapy of tumors
The main syndromes of complications at chemotherapy of malignant tumors
Factors of the increased risk of complications of cytostatic therapy
Perspectives of increase of efficiency of chemotherapy
Hormonal therapy
Hormonal therapy of a breast cancer
Hormonal therapy of cancer of a prostate cancer
Hormonal therapy at an endometria carcinoma
Hormonal therapy of cancer of kidney, thyroid gland, tumors of ovaries
Hormonal therapy of cancer of tumors of the hemopoietic and lymphatic fabric
Indications to use and side effect of drugs of hormonal therapy
Treatment of patients with cancer of a gullet
Treatment of patients with cancer of a stomach
Treatment of patients with cancer of a large intestine
Treatment of patients with cancer of a mammary gland
Treatment of patients with cancer of a neck of uterus
Treatment of patients with cancer of a body of the womb
Treatment of patients with malignant tumors of ovaries
Lung cancer therapy
Treatment of a malignant melanoma
Treatment of malignant tumors of a musculoskeletal system
Oncological help to children
The principles of X-ray inspection in children's oncology
Radionuclide researches at children
Radiation therapy at children
Chemotherapy of tumors at children
Rehabilitation of the oncological patient
Psychotherapeutic actions by the oncological patient
Social and labor rehabilitation in oncology
Survival
Individual forecast
Sanitary and educational work
Promotion of a healthy lifestyle
Prevention of cancer and routine inspections of the population
Characteristic of the relation of the population to a possibility of prevention of cancer diseases
Contents of programs of sanitary and educational work, coverage of groups of the population
Methods and efficiency of sanitary and educational work

Общая онкология

GENERAL ONCOLOGY

General oncology: The management for doctors / Under the editorship of N. P. Napalkov. — Leningrad: Medicine, 1989.

In the management taking into account practical tasks the main questions of an etiology and a pathogeny of malignant new growths, clinical and sanitary and hygienic prevention of cancer, the basic principles of diagnosis and treatment of malignant new growths and the organization of anticarcinogenic fight at the present stage of development of the Soviet health care are taken up.
For oncologists.

PREFACE

Now the problem of fight against malignant new growths not only is one of the most actual in medicine, but also affects many aspects of social life of society. High rates of mortality from malignant new growths and the considerable social and economic losses connected with it allow to consider reasonably fight against malignant new growths as the state problem. Our country has unique system of the organization of anticarcinogenic fight that considerably defines a possibility of carrying out a number of organizational actions (accounting of incidence and malignant tumors mortality of the population of the USSR, an oncological component of annual medical examination of the population, etc.) in the state scale. Great success is achieved in the field of oncology for the last decade. Now, it is obvious that among various aspects of this complex problem there are modern researches about origins, patterns of development of tumors and methods of their etiopatogenetichesky prevention, questions of the organization of anticarcinogenic fight, methods of mass inspection of the population for detection of tumors at early stages, diagnosis, complex treatment and questions of rehabilitation of the oncological patient need special generalization and a statement.
It is necessary to recognize what in recent years at us in the country of publications of the similar plan was not undertaken. At the same time need to arm oncologists, doctors of a lechebnoprofilaktichesky network, hygienists, the staff of sanitary and epidemiologic service of the country and organizers of health care with the arch of modern knowledge in the field of theoretical and clinical oncology ripened.
The present manual is urged to meet this lack considerably. In the management questions of tumoral growth and its distribution in the nature, the role of chemical, physical and biological cancerogenic agents, molecular and biological mechanisms of their action, factors of external and internal environment promoting emergence of tumoral growth and the inherited predisposition to it are consistently stated.
A number of heads is devoted to local and general changes in an organism which can precede clinical displays of a tumor, the concept of a precancer, morphological and biochemical manifestations of tumoral growth.
The general principles of the organization of the oncological help to the population of the USSR, indicators of incidence and malignant tumors mortality of the population of the USSR, the principles of early active detection of tumoral and pretumor diseases within an oncological component of annual medical examination of the population and social and economic aspects of anticarcinogenic fight are in detail stated. Two chapters are devoted to consideration of the general principles of modern approach to diagnosis and treatment of malignant new growths. The special head is devoted to questions of oncology of children's age. Questions of studying of survival and the individual forecast, rehabilitation of oncological patients and sanitary and educational work among the population found reflection in the management.
The management is prepared by group of employees of an award of the Labour Red Banner of Research institute of oncology of the prof. N. N. Petrov Minzdrava of the USSR and considerably reflects long-term experience of institute in development of questions of an etiology, a pathogeny, the organization of anticarcinogenic fight, diagnosis, clinic and treatment of malignant new growths.
The management is intended for oncologists, sanitary and hygienic doctors and doctors of a treatment-and-prophylactic network.

LIST OF REDUCTIONS

PAU - Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
DM OH - 7,12-dimetilbenz (and) anthracene
TFA — 12-0-tetradekanoilforbol-13 acetate
BP — benz (and) pyrene
NMM — Nitrozometilmochevina
DENA — diethylnitrosamine
DMNA - dimethylnitrosamine
MNNG — methylnitronitrosoguanidine
NANOSECOND — nitroso compounds

06meg — 06 methylguanine

ENM — ethylnitrosourea
MX - 20-metilkholantren
AAF — 2 acetylaminofluorene



 
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