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Classification and pathogeny
Treatment and prevention
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The Marseilles fever — the acute rickettsial transmissible disease with a high-quality current which is characterized by existence of primary affect, regional lymphadenitis and widespread makulopapulezny rash.
Synonyms: the Marseilles rickettsiosis, the Tunisian typhous fever, a dog illness, pryshchevidny fever, a tick-borne Mediterranean illness, Carducci's illness — Olmera.
Lat. — febris mediferranea; ixodorickettsiosis.
English — marseilles fever; erruptive fever.
Short historical data.
The first description of the new disease revealed in Tunisia was made by A. Sopog and A. Bruch in 1910, they gave it the name "pryshchevidny fever", being guided by one of the brightest and constant clinical symptoms.
In 1920 revealed a similar disease in Italy and described A. Carducci. In the next years a series of messages on "an illness with rash" followed, and in 1928 J. Olmer u D. Olmer was found by cases of a similar disease in Marseille, their message confirmed wider, than believed earlier, an area of distribution of an illness which received further the name "Marseilles fever".
The role of dog mites in transfer and preservation of an infection was proved in 1930 (P. Durand, E. Conseil), and also the activator was found a bit later (J. Caminopetros, E. Brumpt, 1932), received the name — R. conorii — in honor of one of pioneers of an illness.
In 1936 A. Ya. Alymov revealed cases of this disease in Sevastopol. Studying ways of distribution of an infection, he put experiments on autoinfection by the Marseilles fever. Further cases of the Marseilles fever were registered in many countries of Europe, Southeast Asia and Africa.
Parasitizing of mites on one of the closest companions of the person — a dog creates a possibility of easy infection and the person. Recently the risk of a disease of people increases because the number of vagrant animals sharply increased.
The causative agent of the Marseilles fever — R. conorii — the rhabdoid or krupnobatsillyarny organism possessing the properties inherent in all other rickettsiae (a structure, stability, toxigenicity, coloring, cultivation).
Important feature of R. conorii is its ability to breed not only in cytoplasm, but also in a kernel of the infected cells. Dogs are poorly sensitive to the infection caused by R. conorii, they to a thicket have a carriage. Guinea pigs (at them at experimental infection the periorchitis develops), white rats and mice, and also gophers, rabbits, monkeys are highly sensitive. At white mice at intranasal infection pneumonia quickly develops, and in pulmonary fabric in a large number rickettsiae are found.
Carriers of causative agents of the Marseilles fever are mites. In Caspian and Black Sea regions it is mainly Rh. sanguineus, in others — other species of mites.
Mites of Rh. sanguineus parasitize mainly on dogs though they are found also on other animals (cats, farm animals, rodents) and even birds. Animals are infectious in the period of a rikketsiyemiya. As sources of an infection of a dog play especially important role as the tick adapted most to an organism of a dog at whom the infection is shown by nothing clinically, but the long carriage of the activator can remain. As dogs "are usually attached" to a certain habital (the yard, the house), the infection microcenter within which the highest incidence is registered can form. The person a dog -" a tick" joins in the cycle "tick-" accidentally.
Infection occurs at a sting of the infected tick or rubbing in in a wound on skin or a conjunctiva of the remains of the crushed tick. The tick catches, nasosavshis blood of the infected animal (dogs are more often) then he remains infectious a long time (to 1,5 years — 2 years). Mites possess ability to a transphase and transovarial transmission of infection.
The season of the greatest activity of mites — May — October, comes to light both the greatest prevalence of dogs, and the highest incidence of people at this time.
The susceptibility is general. More often diseases are registered in the seaside cities, ports. In spite of the fact that dogs live everywhere where there lives a person, the zone of distribution of the Marseilles fever is limited to places of natural dwelling of mites carriers, and these are districts with warm climate (mainly the Mediterranean, the Crimean and Caucasian coast, some countries of Africa, India, etc.). Locals are ill less often, but specific antibodies often are found in them that testifies to the postponed earlier masked or oligosymptomatic infection.