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At diseases of a nervous system disorders of the movements can be observed: paralyzes, paresis and hyperkinesias.
Paralysis is a total absence of muscular contraction; paresis — partial disturbance of motive function, two types of paralyzes and paresis distinguish: spastic sluggish. At spastic paralysis (it arises at defeat of bark of a front central crinkle or pyramidal way in a brain) there are no autokinesias only, the muscle tone raises and strengthen all tendon jerks. Sluggish paralysis develops also defeat of peripheral nerves, roots of a spinal cord or gray matter of a spinal cord. It is characterized by absence and any and involuntary movements, tendon jerks, a low tone of muscles their atrophy.
Hyperkinesias, spasms, athetosis, trembling are the disturbances of movements arising involuntarily.
Spasms can be clonic when reductions and relaxations of muscles, and tonic when muscles long remain in a condition of reduction quickly alternate, spasms often arise as result of irritation of a trunk of a brain.
Athetosis — the slow wavy movements of fingers, brushes, trunks (the person is as if twisted when walking — it is observed at defeat of subcrustal nodes.
Trembling — involuntary rhythmic fluctuations of extremities or the head. It arises at damage of a cerebellum and subcrustal educations.
The lack of coordination is called an ataxy. Distinguish a static ataxy — disturbance of balance when standing and dynamic, shown in disproportion of separate movements. The ataxy most often appears at damage of a cerebellum and a vestibular mechanism.
At diseases of a nervous system sensitivity changes are quite often noted: it vanishes (anesthesia), goes down (giposteziya) or raises (hyperesthesia). In the absence of so-called superficial sensitivity of people does not distinguish heat and cold, does not feel pricks; at change of deep sensitivity loses idea of position of extremities in space, as a result of its movement become uncontrollable. Disturbances of sensitivity arise at damage of peripheral nerves, roots of nerves, a spinal cord and its conduction paths, a parietal lobe and conduction paths of bark of big cerebral hemispheres.
At many diseases of a nervous system skin becomes dry, on it there are cracks, decubituses, the fascinating and deeply lying fabrics are formed; bones become fragile. Prevention of these diseases, including medical exercises is extremely important.
According to Trankvillitati A. N. Vosstanovit's book health, sport, 1992. — Moscow: Physical culture