Swine flu (influenza virus And (H1N1)) - the respiratory disease of pigs caused by an influenza virus of type A, a source of regular outbreaks of this illness in pigs. The classical virus of swine flu (type H1N1 influenza virus) was for the first time allocated from pigs in 1930.
As well as all influenza viruses, influenza viruses of a pig are constantly mutated. Pigs can be infected with bird flu and viruses of human flu just as influenza viruses of a pig. When influenza viruses from various versions infect pigs, viruses can mutate and there can be new viruses which are connection of a pork, human and/or bird's influenza virus. In recent years, various mutations of viruses of swine flu appeared. Four main types of flu which were allocated at pigs: H1N1, H1N2, H3N2, and H3N1. However the majority of recently allocated viruses of swine flu was the H1N1 viruses.
Usually viruses of swine flu do not infect people, but at the moment we have such cases of infection from pigs, and from the person to the person.
Epidemiology of flu A (H1N1)
Ways of distribution of swine flu the A (H1N1) virus as assume, same as well as at usual flu. Viruses of swine flu can be directly transmitted from pigs to people and from people to pigs. The human infection from pigs, most possibly, happens to influenza viruses when people are in close proximity to the infected pigs. The virus of swine flu is transferred in the basic from the person to the person through cough or sneezing of the person of the patient with flu, an airborne way. It is impossible to catch this flu, using pork or products from it.
Influenza viruses And (H1N1) out of a body there can live 2 and more hours. The infected people can infect others, already next day after caught, i.e. before emergence of clinical symptoms of an illness. The people infected with swine flu are potentially infectious till 7 days after the beginning of a disease. Children, especially children of younger age, can be potentially infectious longer periods.
Signs and symptoms of swine flu
Symptoms of swine flu at people are similar to symptoms of usual human flu and include fever, cough, a pharyngalgia, muscle pains, a headache, appetite loss, a fever and fatigue. The isolated cases of diarrhea and vomiting connected with swine flu met. As well as usual flu, swine flu can cause an exacerbation of the latent chronic diseases.
The following symptoms observed at children demand urgent medical care:
- Hurried breathing or disturbance of breath, - Cyanotic skin color, - Use of small amount of liquid, - Acrimony, - Improvement symptoms, but then repeated aggravations of symptoms, similar to flu, with a temperature and cough, - Fever with rash.
At adults, treat symptoms which need urgent medical care:
- The complicated breath or an asthma - Pain or pressure in a breast or stomach - Sudden dizziness - Fever - Serious or constant vomiting
If you got sick, you have to stay at home and avoid contacts with other people as far as it is possible not to be a source of distribution of an infection.
Prevention of flu A (H1N1)
The first and most important: to wash hands. Try to support the high level of the psychoemotional state, increase immunity. Healthy sufficient sleep, physical activity, control of stressful states, use of a large amount of liquid, healthy food. Try not to concern surfaces which can be infected with a virus of swine flu. Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
Frequent washing of hands will help to protect you from a virus. It is necessary to wash hands with water with soap or to wipe with medical alcohol. The recommended washing time – not less than 15-20 seconds. If water and soap are unavailable, napkins or anti-bactericidal gel on a spirit basis can be used.
Treatment of swine flu
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu ®) or Zanamivir (Relenza ®) for treatment and/or prevention of infections influenza viruses of pigs is recommended to use. Oseltamivir is recommended against flu A and a viral infection of B for people by age of one year and is more senior. Zanamivir is recommended against flu A and a viral infection of B for patients of 5 flyings and is more senior.
If you are sick, antiviral drugs can help to facilitate the course of a disease, and will help you to feel better quicker. They can prevent serious complications of swine flu also. For successful treatment, it is necessary to begin to use antiviral drugs, as soon as possible, at the first clinical signs of a disease.
Now active researches on creation of a vaccine against swine flu are conducted.
Attention! Do not give aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) to children or teenagers, sick flu; it can lead to a rare, but serious disease – Ray's syndrome.
Teenagers with flu can accept medicines without aspirin, such as acetaminophenum (Tylenol ®) and an ibuprofen (Advil ®, Motrin ®, Nuprin ®) to facilitate symptoms.