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Idiopathic hypertensia (synonyms: primary arterial hypertension, essential hypertensia) at which the arterial pressure (the main clinical implication) increases and is surprised cardiovascular system, is a consequence of disturbance of difficult mechanisms of nervous and endocrine systems and a water salt metabolism. To a hypertension adverse heredity, obesity, a diabetes mellitus, a climax, surplus in food of table salt have. As a result of a hypertension cardiovascular insufficiency, coronary heart disease, a stroke and the damage of kidneys leading to uraemia can develop (kidneys are incapable to excrete urine). Unlike secondary arterial hypertension, at an idiopathic hypertensia the increased arterial pressure is not a consequence of damage of kidneys, diseases of closed glands or result of other pathological processes at which the increased arterial pressure represents itself only one of symptoms of a basic disease.
Essential value in development of an idiopathic hypertensia has hereditary predisposition, i.e. set of genetic influences with which the insufficiency of a dilatatsionny reserve of resistive vessels, characteristic of this disease, which is shown in inability to adequate expansion of trailer arteries and arterioles in response to increase in cordial emission (minute volume of blood) is connected. The environmental, neurogenic and humoral influences leading to increase in volume of the blood which is thrown out by heart and/or increasing reactivity of vessels in relation to pressor influences (excess administration of sodium, a superactivity of a sympathetic nervous system, smoking and some other) are considered as the factors promoting development of an idiopathic hypertensia. Accumulating on genetic influences, they promote identification of the latent defect in that site of a vascular bed which defines the most part of peripheric vascular resistance, and accelerate emergence of clinical signs of a disease.
The hypertension proceeds wavy — the periods of a high pressure are replaced by rather satisfactory condition. Three stages of an illness are allocated. The first — when functional disturbances with periodic increase of a blood pressure to 160/95 — 180/105 mm of mercury are observed., followed by headaches, noise in the head, a sleep disorder. The second — when pressure raises to 200/115 mm of mercury., that is followed by headaches, a sonitus, dizziness, a poshatyvaniye when walking, a sleep disorder, pains in heart. There are also organic changes, for example increase in a left ventricle of heart, eyeground retina vasoconstriction. The third — when pressure raises to 230/130 mm of mercury. more and with firmness remains at such level. At the same time organic lesions are sharply expressed: atherosclerosis of arteries, dystrophic changes in many bodies, circulatory unefficiency, stenocardia, renal failure, myocardial infarction, retinal apoplexy of an eye or brain. Hypertensive crises happen at the second and generally the third degree of a disease.
Treatment of a hypertension of all three degrees except use of medicamentous means assumes the correct alternation of work, rest and a dream, a diet with decrease in food of table salt, observance of the motive mode, systematic exercises, massage and self-massage.
Occupations by physiotherapy exercises strengthen an organism, improve work cordial sosudistoy/the central nervous, respiratory systems, normalize a metabolism and functions of a vestibular mechanism, reduce pressure, adapt an organism for different exercise stresses, promote relaxation of muscles that removes spasms.
Physical exercises it is regularly important to give classes. Include the all-developing exercises for all muscular groups in them (including small), exercises on relaxation of muscles of hands and legs, and also training of a vestibular mechanism that is very effective for lowering of blood pressure. All movements carry out with a full amplitude, freely, without tension, breath holding and a natuzhivaniye. It is especially important to learn to relax randomly muscles (the swing movements, rocking, potryakhivany the relaxed extremities) and it is correct to breathe (the extended exhalation, including an exhalation in water). For removal of excitement of a vasomotor center, decrease in a tone of muscles and vessels exercises on relaxation of muscles in different starting positions are very effective that leads to lowering of blood pressure. Are not less useful to hypertensive persons of exercise in water and swimming as in water much less static efforts of muscles and are created good conditions for their relaxation.
At an idiopathic hypertensia also dosed walking and walks, swimming, games (badminton, volleyball, tennis), walking on skis are recommended. It is necessary to go on foot daily, since usual speed, then speed decreases, and the distance increases (from 3 to 5 km), also speed increases further. In 2 — 3 months the distance is brought to 10 km. At an idiopathic hypertensia of the first degree, having mastered walking, it is possible to begin to jog under control of the doctor if the state of health allows.
At an idiopathic hypertensia of the second degree it is possible to carry out physical exercises from starting positions sitting and standing: the all-developing, breathing exercises and on relaxation of muscles, and also self-massage. Besides, the dosed walking at slow and average speed, in the beginning on short distances is recommended, and then gradually increasing them to 5 — 7 km.
At an idiopathic hypertensia of the third degree after hypertensive crisis remedial gymnastics is carried out in a starting position lying on spin with highly raised headboard, and then, at improvement of a state, in a sitting position. Exercises are useful to joints of hands and legs in combination with profound breath, in a small dosage (the all-developing exercises repeat 2 — 4 times, and respiratory 3 times), with rest pauses in several seconds after each exercise. Rate of performance slow. At a satisfactory condition when are engaged sitting, include exercises on relaxation of muscles of hands and legs, on attention, on simple coordination.
If after hypertensive crisis there are paresis or paralyzes of extremities, then carry out the same exercises, as after the had stroke.
See also medical foods at an idiopathic hypertensia