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Lavretskaya E. F . Pharmacological regulation of mental processes.
Moscow: Science, 1985.
Data on patterns of effect of pharmacological drugs on the central nervous system are provided to monographs. Questions of classification, an action spectrum on the person, animals, the cellular level of various groups of psychotropic and antiepileptic drugs are considered. The new type of stimulators of a nervous system — blockers of potassium channels of a membrane is described.
Achievements of structural chemistry and molecular biology, neurophysiology and biophysics significantly expanded and changed possibilities of research of effect of biologically active agents to a nervous system.
In recent years there were new data on mechanisms of effect of the known and again found drugs on various functions of the central nervous system. The whole chapter is made by researches of receptors of a nervous system for certain groups of medicines. These data have not absolutely complete character yet, there is an intensive accumulation all of the new and new facts which constantly change the developed representations.
Extremely important division of science about biologically active agents is studying of their action on ion channels in a neuron membrane. Possibilities of use of such drugs are not studied up to the end yet, they are a little used in experimental and clinical pharmacology.
All this does reasonable the edition of works where in a complex, from the different parties the medicines and biologically active agents operating on a nervous system are considered. Comparison of an action spectrum of these substances on the person is normal also of pathology, in experiment on animals and on cellular and molecular models gives a better understanding of properties of drugs, of communication between their separate effects and of opportunities of their use.
In domestic literature, in essence, there are no similar monographic editions. The most part of the available works is devoted to clinical problems of use of separate groups of medicines at certain forms of pathology. In them the main attention is paid to development of indications to use of this or that medicine, the choice of doses, duration of a course of treatment. Questions of the experimental characteristic of a range of activity of substances, mechanisms of action, molecular and biological bases of their effects in them usually are not considered or are only mentioned. These works are intended mainly for clinical physicians; the wide range of researchers-physiologists, biochemists, chemists hardly can use so special editions.
On the other hand, there are works of pharmacological contents in which it is detailed, but only on the one hand action of any group of neuropsychotropic drugs in experiments on animals is described, communication between their chemical structure and some pharmacological effects is analyzed. The ratio between properties of these substances in clinical conditions and in experiment usually remains outside attention of authors.
At the same time is of special interest for a large number of researchers and practical workers to track communication between various effects of neuropsychotropic drugs in clinic, experiment and at the level of cellular, molecular models, to specify biological bases of their action.
In this work only the sections devoted to effect of biologically active agents on the central nervous system namely pharmacological regulation mental and epileptic processes are considered. In each section the data obtained at research of the person and also in experiment on animals who in the fullest measure characterize a range of activity of the considered groups of substances, and those achievements of molecular biology which open new pages in understanding of mechanisms of development of their effects are compared.
The new type of effect of substances on carrying out excitement in the central and peripheral nervous system, neuromuscular synapses which cornerstone the combination of effects at molecular level — blockade of voltage-dependent potassium channels of a membrane, and also cholinesterase inhibition is is described.
The principles and methods of search of biologically active agents possessing the described action type on a nervous system are considered. At the same time new approach to "designing" of neuropsychotropic drugs on the basis of the analysis of their specific linkng with brain membranes is also provided.