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The intestinal dysbiosis and secondary immunodeficiency even more often meet in clinical practice of doctors of all specialties. It is caused by the changing living conditions, harmful effects of preformirovanny environment on a human body.
All factors participating in forming of an intestinal dysbiosis conditionally divide on:
• professional (industrial poisons)
• sanitary and hygienic
• physical and chemical
• ionizing radiation
• immune disturbances
• stressful states
• somatopathies (intestines, a gall bladder and zhelchevyvodyashchy ways, a liver and a pancreas, atrophic gastritis, a peptic ulcer of a stomach and duodenum, a state after a stomach resection)
• infectious diseases
• intestines ischemia
• rheumatic diseases, scleroderma, system lupus erythematosus and other diseases of connecting fabric
• diabetes mellitus
• irrational food
• medicamentous influence (antibiotics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, streptocides, the narcotic, mestnoanesteziruyushchy, enveloping, adsorbing drugs, other medicines which can change motility of intestines, break formation of mucin).
Problem of disturbance of a biocenosis of intestines at children — one of the most actual, especially at early children's age, including the neonatality period. Results of modern researches demonstrate existence of an intestinal dysbiosis of the I—II degree at 50% of healthy children of chest age, the III—IV degree — at 20-25% of children.
Disturbances of a microbiocenosis of intestines observe practically at all diseases of children's age. When forming dysbacteriosis the general condition of the patient is aggravated, resistance of an organism to infectious and antigenic agents, tolerance to foodstuff decreases. All this creates a background for heavier course of diseases, emergence of complications, transition of acute forms to chronic. Children of the first half of the year of life are especially subject to a disbioz that is caused by tranzitorny insufficiency of enzymes (generally lactases), immaturity of the vegetative nervous system (VNS) regulating motility of intestines, not formation of immune mechanisms.
If eubioz consider how the optimum ratio of microorganisms in lower parts thin and in a large intestine which characterizes the ecosystem which developed in the course of evolution then an intestinal dysbiosis is a bacteriological diagnosis and a clinical syndrome which means quantitative and qualitative changes of normal intestinal microflora, disturbance of its antagonistic functions and other biological properties, and also reproduction of various conditionally pathogenic microorganisms (CPM) which at a normal biocenosis are absent or make insignificant part of the general microflora.
According to the industry standard, understand the clinical laboratory syndrome arising at some diseases and clinical situations which is characterized as an intestinal dysbiosis:
• symptoms of damage of intestines
• change of qualitative and/or quantitative structure of normal microflora
• a translocation of different types of microorganisms in unusual biotopes
• excess growth of microflora.
Such imbalance is shown by typical clinical signs of enteritis or a coloenteritis. There is dysfunction of a stomach and intestines with the dispeptic phenomena (a lock, frustration of a chair, a meteorism, an abdominal pain, an eructation, nausea, vomiting), a sprue, is frequent allergodermatoz.
At disturbance of the motor, digesting and vsasyvatelny functions of intestines receipt in an organism of plastic and power material is limited, intake of toxins and allergens is possible, all types of a metabolism and immunity are broken. At early children's age the intestinal dysbiosis, except forming of chronic diseases of the digestive system, promotes also developing of dystrophy, anemia, vitamin deficiency, food allergy, secondary immunodeficiency which, in turn, can be the factors supporting existence of a disbioz of intestines.
At children's age are basic reasons of emergence of a disbioz of intestines:
• untimely beginning and wrong maintaining lactation
• early transition and irrational artificial feeding on the first year of life of the child and disturbance of a diet — at advanced age
• acute intestinal infections and diseases of the digestive channel of noninfectious character
• irrational use of antibiotics and other chemotherapeutic drugs
• allergic predisposition
• decrease in natural resistance of an organism. Correction of an intestinal dysbiosis has to be consecutive, complex and continuous, before achievement of lasting clinical effect. Normalization of a microbic landscape at the same time comes later and demonstrates, finally, immunity recovery.
Indications to carrying out research of a microbic landscape of intestines:
• long dysfunction of intestines of the obscure etiology
• repeated intestinal infections at the long course of a disease or a bakteriovydeleniya
• the intestinal frustration associated using antibacterial drugs
• frequent acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI);
• the inborn and acquired syndrome of the broken membrane digestion and absorption
• chronic diseases of the digestive system and helminthosis
• clinically expressed secondary hypoimmune states
• chronic disorders of food.
Considering the reasons and risk factors of developing of an intestinal dysbiosis at children, follows vshchelyat groups of newborns and children of early age who with a high probability have deviations as a part of intestinal microflora. Lack of clinical manifestations testifies to a condition of unstable equilibrium, or a stage of compensation of dysbacteriosis.