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Close concepts: puffiness, elefantiaz, edema
For centuries hypostases considered as an illness indicator. Usually patients consider that hypostases mean "heart failure" if hypostases are observed on the one hand, people, far from medicine, are afraid of thrombosis.
Differentiation of the hypostases caused by system morbid conditions from those which cornerstone local frustration are can vary on complexity degree from a simple and clear clinical task to very difficult and complex diagnostic problem. Of course, the exact diagnosis is necessary not only to start the corresponding treatment, but also and for clarification of the etiological factor which is the cornerstone of hypostases which in itself can be a reversible state or demand carrying out special medical events.
Definition and essence of peripheral hypostases
Simply speaking, hypostases represent the increase in the sizes of this or that part of a body caused by excess accumulation of liquid in fabrics. They can be result of increase of capillary permeability, an obstacle to outflow of a venous blood or lymph or accumulation of liquid in fabrics sh result of decrease in oncotic pressure in a blood plasma?
In the present article only hypostases of extremities are discussed. In spite of the fact that hypostases of upper extremities can result any of the listed above reasons, hypostases of the lower extremities represent much more widespread clinical problem (as a result of the influence of vertical position of a body burdening"), and this symptom is usually starting point of diagnosis. At first differentiation of the general hypostases from local is carried out. Further, after the solution of more difficult problem of recognition of specific types of local hypostasis pass to their detailing as it seems that it causes the greatest diagnostic difficulties.
Prevalence and reasons
Hypostases of extremities are the widespread complaint (the fourth of the most frequent reasons of the address to the doctor) as they are well noticeable, are regarded by the patient as display of a disease and cause concern from the cosmetic point of view, especially in women. Owing to these reasons as soon as patients notice hypostases, they right there ask for medical assistance.
Practical classification of the reasons of hypostases is provided to table.
Classification of hypostases
I. General hypostases
A. Heart diseases
B. Diseases of kidneys
G. Liver diseases
D. Hypostases are gipoproteinemichesky
E. Idiomatic hypostases
II. Local hypostases
A. Venous hypostases
1. Acute deep vein thrombosis
2. Chronic venous insufficiency
3. Venous obstruction
B. Lymphatic hypostases
1. Idiopathic lymphatic hypostases
and. Inborn idiopathic lymphatic hypostases
. Sculpture lymphatic hypostases
2. Inflammatory lymphatic hypostases
3. Obstructive lymphatic hypostases
B. Fatty hypostases
G. Other types of hypostases
1. Orthostatic hypostases
2. Arteriovenous anomalies
3. Hypostases after vascular operations
4. The hypostases caused by defeats of a musculoskeletal system
and. Muscular pathology
. Inflammation of a tendinous vagina
century. Fracture of bones of a metatarsus
. Baker's cyst
5. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy
III. The hypostases caused by reception of medicines
B. Hypotensive drugs
B. Anti-inflammatory drugs
G. Other medicines