Beginning >> Diseases >> Infectious >> Botulism

Botulism

Table of contents
Botulism
Diagnosis

Botulism — an acute infectious disease which characteristic signs are weakness of skeletal and smooth muscles, paresis of guts, a visual disturbance, swallowing, an urination. Treats group of food toxicoinfections in case of infection with an alimentary way; wound botulism is possible.

Etiology. The activator — the anaerobic microbe numbering 7 serotypes exists in a look dispute and vegetative forms. Germination dispute, is long remaining and eurysynusic in external environment, happens in the conditions of an anaerobiosis in the presence of the optimum temperature, humidity and nutritious substrate. Such conditions are created most often in cases of house conservation of mushrooms, fish, vegetable and meat products at insufficient heat treatment. Disease severity is caused as the infecting dose, and an activator serotype. Especially heavy current is connected with a serotype E which is found most often at the use of the infected sun-dried fish and other fish products of house conservation. In cases of the botulism connected with products of a plant origin activators of serotypes And yes E are found more often. The serotype In comes to light mainly at the botulism caused by conserved meat (sausages, stewed meat, gammon).

Epidemiology. The main source of an infection are animals with whose excrements the activator gets to external environment. Possibility of botulism is connected with klimato-geographical conditions and house conservation of products.

Pathogeny. The leading value has disturbance of motive function of muscles from hardly notable and scarcely noticeable weakness to paresis and paralyzes. Under the influence of exotoxin salivation, secretory and motor activity of a stomach and intestines are suppressed. Temperature does not increase, except for cases with associated diseases and the arising complications.

Clinic. The incubation interval at botulism depends on the infecting dose — of several o'clock at a high dose about several days at small. At an alimentary way of infection with food not only botulinic exotoxin, but also its source — the microbe continuing to breed in the digestive channel of the patient gets into a stomach of the person. It is promoted by the termination of evakuatorny function of a stomach and intestines with creation at the same time of anaerobic conditions. Only during the first hours diseases after emergence of feeling of weight and supporting in epigastriß area are noted nausea, vomiting is possible that it has essential value for diagnosis. Further owing to paresis of muscles of a stomach and guts vomiting stops, there is abdominal distention, a delay of a chair and gases. The meteorism at botulism sometimes is accepted to impassability of intestines owing to the mechanical reasons.
Absorption of exotoxin from the digestive channel involves changes of a tone of muscles of a skeleton, a throat, a gullet. The ophthalmoplegic syndrome is typical for botulism: the mydriasis with a weak photoharmose, a diplopia, the indistinct image of objects at a short distance, a ptosis, is possible a strabismus, the dysphagy, a dysarthtia, paresis of a soft palate, disturbance of the act of swallowing are characteristic. Arterial pressure from the very beginning of a disease changes a little. It is possible only at further disease owing to long disturbances of microcirculation that it is possible to explain with paresis of capillaries, disorder of exchange processes.



 
"An illness from a sting of rats (a sodoka and a streptobacillosis)   Brucellosis"