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Illness of cat's scratches (benign inoculation reticulosis) — the zoonotic infectious disease with a high-quality current resulting from mainly close contact with cats (a sting, scratches) which main manifestation in most cases is increase in regional lymph nodes with their tendency to suppuration.
Synonyms: high-quality lymphoreticulosis, not bacterial regional lymphadenitis, Mollare's granuloma, illness to Debra, benign inoculation reticulosis.
Lat. — lymphoreticulosis begina.
English — cat scratch fever, cat scratch disease.
Short historical data.
The first message on this disease appeared in scientific literature in 1931: R. Debre in France described a case of unusual lymphadenitis at the 10-year-old boy who was often communicating with cats and having a set of scratches on a body. This case drew attention to those that clinical manifestations were regarded as tuberculosis, but there was no intoxication and all symptoms disappeared without treatment in several months. Repeated crops of contents of the increased lymph nodes on usual mediums were negative. In the next years other researchers also began to report about similar cases (Foshay, 1932; Rose, 1946, etc.). Many works were devoted to attempts to find the activator, but they remained unsuccessful that forced to think first of all of the virus nature of an illness.
Since 1946 for verification of the diagnosis begin to use the skin test (Rose) based on intradermal administration of the material prepared from nagnoivshegosya a node. Further researches showed high specificity of the test, became possible to confirm the diagnosis and to compare the obtained data. For the 50th years the peak of studying of a new disease is necessary. In 1954 McMurray and Daniels report about 160 cases of the illness which arose after scratches of a cat and confirmed with an intracutaneous test. In 1955 also the first case in the USSR is described (M. F. Maretskaya). By the end of the 50th years in scientific literature there are data already almost about 500 cases, and to the 1990th — about 3000. About an etiology of a disease various versions — virus, rickettsial, Chlamidia continued to move forward. Researches continued.
In 1950 R. Mollaret described the characteristic cytoplasmic inclusions appearing in endothelial vessels at monkeys after introduction by it of the emulsion prepared from a bubo of sick people, but did not receive an explanation for it. In 1983 D. Wear with colleagues was reported that they found in sick people polymorphic small bacteria in a wall of the vessels located near the affected lymph nodes out of a necrosis zone and also in punctates from other bodies (a liver, a spleen) and in conjunctival granulomas. They gave it the name Afipia felis.
Only in 1991 this microorganism managed to be grown up on artificial environments. But still discussions about etiological communication of A. felis with a benign inoculation reticulosis continue. In the early nineties as a result of a series of the works which are carried out by different researchers data on what is considerable more often than A. felis, in a defeat zone are obtained (lymph nodes, skin, conjunctivas) it was possible to allocate Bartonella henselae, and DNA of this microorganism was found in blood of sick people and cats. Now the most probable activator V. is considered henselae though the possible role and A. felis continues to be discussed, and since 1997 data that at typical clinic of a benign inoculation reticulosis one more representative of the sort Bartonella — V. was allocated to clarridgeiae appeared.
The disease is registered everywhere though the available statistics, certainly, does not reflect true incidence as ease of a current (in most cases) does not promote the address of patients to doctors. But the separate cases proceeding with fever and the expressed lymphadenopathy can bring patients to doctors of various specialties (hematologists, oncologists, phthisiatricians) and prolonged buzuspeshny treatment.
Cats — cosmopolitans, they live everywhere where there lives a person. Therefore people have to study culture of communication with these animals, expect a possibility of various effects of such obshcheniye.