Anemia is a kliniko-hematologic syndrome of which are characteristic reduction of a hemoglobin content in blood unit of volume, is more often at simultaneous reduction of quantity of erythrocytes, leading to development of air hunger of fabrics. It is considered to be as anemia decrease in level of hemoglobin lower than 130 g/l and quantities of erythrocytes are lower 4 * 1012/l at men and respectively lower than 120 g/l and 3,5*1012/l at women.
I. Macrocytic anemia (MCV> 100 microns (fl); diameter of erythrocytes> 8 microns) (deficit of B12 vitamin and folic acid, liver illness, preleukosis). II. Microcytic anemia (MCV <80 microns (fl), diameter of erythrocytes <6,5 microns) (deficit of iron, disturbance of synthesis of a globin, disturbance of synthesis of porphyrine and gem). III. Normotsitarny anemia (MCV 81 — 99 microns (fl), diameter of erythrocytes is 7,2 — 7,5 microns) (recent blood loss, hemolysis of erythrocytes, hypo - and aplastic anemia, a myelofibrosis).
Classification of anemias by a color indicator
I. Anemia is hypochromia, a color indicator <0,8 (an iron deficiency anemia, sideroakhrestichesky anemia, thalassemias). II. Anemia is normokhromny, a color indicator 0,85-1,05 (anemia at a chronic renal failure, aplastic anemia, anemia at liver diseases, acute posthemorrhagic anemia). III. Anemia is hyperchromic, a color indicator> 1,05 (B12-scarce anemia, akhrestichesky anemia, foliyevodefitsitny anemia).
Classification of anemias depending on ability of marrow to regeneration
I. The regenerator form of anemia (with sufficient function of marrow) — reticulocytes is more than 1% (at hemolitic anemias, reticulocytic crisis at treatment by B12 vitamin of pernicious anemia, after blood losses). II. The hyporegenerative form of anemias (with the lowered regenerator function of marrow) — reticulocytes is less than 1% (at iron deficiency anemias, chronic blood losses). III. A hypoplastic or aplastic form of anemia (with sharp oppression of processes of an erythrogenesis) — reticulocytes less than 0,2% (at hypoplastic anemias, a panmyelophthisis). About erythropoietic function of marrow judge by the content in peripheral blood of reticulocytes. Normal content of reticulocytes is 0,2-1%.