Form of release of medicine. Ampoules on 2 ml containing 0,1 and 0,5 g of amikacin of sulfate.
Use and doses of drug. Intramusculary or intravenously on 0,01 — 0,015 g/kg a day in 2 — 3 receptions. An initial single dose of amikacin — 7,5 mg/kg. Duration of a course of treatment usually makes 7-10 days; more prolonged use of aminoglycosides is possible only according to very strict indications.
Effect of the medicine. Amikacin - an antibiotic of a broad spectrum of activity with preferential influence on gram-negative bacteria. Amikacin — the most effective aminoglycoside suppressing the microflora steady against generation aminoglycosides I and II, and in some cases — and to a netilmitsin.
Medicinal interaction. Due to the high toxicity it is reasonable to apply aminoglycosides short courses in effective combinations to other antibiotics. At the infections caused by a pyocyanic stick the aminoglycoside combination with karbenitsilliny is highly effective. The synergism is also noted at an aminoglycoside combination to benzylpenicillin, cephalosporins. The probability of nephrotoxic reactions increases at a combination to Methicillinum, Cefaloridinum, streptocides, furosemide. The probability of allergic complications is low.
For reduction of nephrotoxic effect of aminoglycosides by the patient recommend plentiful drink. It is necessary to avoid joint appointment with aminoglycosides of the strong diuretics and other medicines reducing canalicular secretion.
Indications, contraindications, possible by-effects, treatment of complications and poisonings. Aminoglycosides can have nephrotoxic and neurotoxic effect (selective damage of the VIII cranial nerves). Ototoksichesky complications of aminoglycosides (are most dangerous up to irreversible deafness) and vestibular frustration. Damages of kidneys (a proteinuria, a hamaturia) are reversible. The probability of side reactions increases at the previous pathology of acoustic organs and kidneys, at patients with decrease in glomerular filtering (including at elderly), at prolonged use of high doses of aminoglycosides, a hypopotassemia and dehydration, a myasthenia, co-administration of the muscle relaxants and medicines reducing canalicular secretion. Children of early age, and also at adults at fast intravenous administration and intracavitary (intra belly and intrapleural) purpose of high doses can have disturbances of breath owing to the neuromuscular block. See. Streptomycin sulfate.